Final Exam Review.pdf - PHYS 151 Spring 2017 Supplemental...

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PHYS 151 Spring 2017 Alyssa Tsenter Supplemental Instruction [email protected] Final Exam Review A brief review of the new material: Gravitation: Newton proposed a force law that states that every particle attracts any other particle with a gravitational force of magnitude: ࠵? = ࠵? ࠵?࠵? ࠵? In a circular orbit, F G = . With this new definition of gravity, we need a new form of gravitational potential energy: ࠵? = − ࠵?࠵?࠵? ࠵? This value is negative because we set as our U= 0. The initial speed needed to get a projectile to come to rest at U= 0 is called the and its formula is: ࠵? = 2࠵?࠵? ࠵? Kepler’s Laws! All planets move in elliptical orbits, with the Sun at one focus. A planet sweeps out equal areas in the plane of the orbit in equal time intervals. Period of rotation is proportional to the semimajor axis of its orbit. ࠵? - ࠵? = ࠵? - ࠵? . ࠵?࠵? ࠵? = 4࠵? ࠵?࠵? ࠵? . *the 2 nd equation holds for circular orbits if a is replaced with r (semimajor axis/radius) 0 th Law of Thermodynamics: Zeroth Law: If bodies A and B are each in thermal equilibrium with a third body C (the thermometer), then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other. The SI unit for temperature is . The equation of state for an ideal gas is given by: ࠵?࠵? = ࠵?࠵?࠵? = ࠵? ࠵? 9 ࠵?࠵? = ࠵?࠵? ; ࠵? Internal energy is associated with the microscopic components of a system and includes potential and kinetic energy. For an ideal gas it is defined as: ࠵? =>? = 3 2 ࠵?࠵?࠵? Heat is a mechanism by which energy is transferred between a system and its environment because of . It is also the amount of energy Q transferred by this mechanism. An equation for Q is: ࠵? = ࠵?࠵?∆࠵? *when phase isn’t changing It is really hard to measure c directly so we need to use which let’s us say ࠵? DEFG = −࠵? HE? To account for heat released/absorbed by a phase change need to take into account latent heat of fusion (solid to liquid) and of vaporization (liquid to gas).
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PHYS 151 Spring 2017 Alyssa Tsenter Supplemental Instruction [email protected] ࠵? = ±࠵?࠵? K EL M 1 st Law of Thermodynamics: 1 st Law: The increase in the internal energy of a thermodynamic system is equal to the amount of heat energy added and the work done on the system by the surroundings.
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