PSY 202 - Chapter 9 - Intelligence and IQ testing.docx

PSY 202 - Chapter 9 - Intelligence and IQ testing.docx - 9...

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9 Intelligence and IQ testing 1.1Intelligence as Sensory Capacity Galton and Cattell defined intelligence as sensory capacity. Although sensory capacity does play a role in intelligence it is not revolved solely around it. This was settled when Helen, a blind and deaf woman, turned out to be one of the most intelligent people known 1.2Intelligence as Abstract Thinking Binet and Simon, from France, created the first intelligence test , a diagnostic tool designed to measure overall thinking ability. This included questions revolving factual items and interpersonal questions o although this test consisted of a wide variety of questions, they all had one thing in common: they required abstract thinking - capacity to understand hypothetical concepts Majority of critics agreed with Binet and Simon’s definition of thinking. However, they added to their definition, they concluded that intelligence also means to be able to: o reason abstractly o learn to adapt to novel environmental circumstances o acquire knowledge o benefit from experience 1.3Intelligence as General Vs. Specific Abilities Spearmen agreed with Binet and Simons definition of intelligence. However, he further categorized intelligence into two types: general intelligence (g) and specific intelligence (s ) 1.4Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Cattell suggested that s, specific intelligence, can be classified into: 1. fluid intelligence – capacity to learn new ways of solving problems fluid abilities are more highly related to general intelligence 2. crystallized intelligence – accumulated knowledge of the world acquired over time crystallized intelligence is more highly related to specific intelligence 1.5Multiple Intelligence Gardner on the other hand, believed that there were more than 2 ways to categorize specific intelligence. He suggested that there were 8 specific types of intelligence
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Gardner proposed the existence of multiple intelligences – entirely different domains of intellectual skill o autistic savants provide support for the existence of multiple intelligences. Gardner’s theory is hard to falsify since we can not set in stone whether an individual has an excelled musical talent due to solely talent. This means we do not know if the reason for an individual having such great skill may be due to the practising of it. o Intelligences might not be independent: someone might have a high musical intelligence due to the fact that they have a high interpersonal intelligence as well. And thus, this might influence their musical talent Gardner contemplated on a 9 th intelligence type: existential intelligence – the ability to grasp deep philosophical ideas, like the meaning of life o Gardner's model can still be added on to, however, for instance: emotional intelligence or humour intelligence or memory intelligence Sternberg’s perspective of intelligence: the triarchaic model o Analytical intelligence – “book smarts” o Practical intelligence
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