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BLG 311 - Chapter 1-3 - Introduction to the Cell.docx

BLG 311 - Chapter 1-3 - Introduction to the Cell.docx -...

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Introduction to the Cell Chapter 1 Cells and Genomes Chapter 2 Cell Chemistry and Bioenergetics Chapter 3 Proteins 1.1 Basic structure of cells Non-membrane bound organelles : Ribosomes – work with mRNA to synthesize proteins (protein factory) Nucleolus – part of nucleus responsible for RNA splicing Cytoskeleton – provides structural support for the cell and provides tracks for moving organelles Centrioles – controls formation of microtubules, part of cytoskeleton Membrane bound organelles : Nucleus – double lipid bilayer that encloses and protects DNA Golgi apparatus – modifies and processing proteins and lipids; sorting to different parts of the cell Mitochondria – oxidation of energy molecules to make ATP (oxidative phosphorylation or respiration)
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Smooth ER – biosynthesis of lipids Rough ER – biosynthesis of proteins Plasma membrane – surrounds the cell, separates the outside world from the inside. Also, is responsible for forming semi-permeable membrane around cell Lysosomes – Degradation of membranes and proteins Peroxisomes (or Glyoxysomes in plants) – reduction/oxidation reactions, synthesis or breakdown of some lipids Endosomes – membrane-bound organelles that result from endocytosis (internalization) of material from the plasma membrane. These compartments are involved in sorting of material (among other things) Chloroplasts – found in plants, algae – use sunlight to make organic molecules from CO 2 and water (photosynthesis) 1.2 Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Bacteria and Archaea Animal, fungi and plants Circular DNA Linear DNA No nucleus Nucleus Limited organelles (lack mitochondria, chloroplast, nucleus etc.) Not limited to organelles Small Large Divide by binary fission Divide by mitosis and meiosis Unicellular Multicellular
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1.3 Chemical information flow: DNA to DNA, DNA to RNA, RNA to protein DNA replication (DNA to DNA) 1. Proteins open the double stranded DNA to turn it into a single stranded DNA 2. DNA polymerase is a structure that moves done the single stranded DNA to replicate it. DNA polymerase, however, cannot start replication on its own. So, an enzyme called RNA primer begins the task by creating a short sequence of RNA. DNA polymerase moves along the single stranded DNA and the RNA primer to create a new replicated DNA strand. DNA to RNA 1. DNA is transcribed to RNA polymerase. Transcription (transferring) is the process of copying hereditary information and transferring it from DNA to RNA 2. RNA polymerase cannot initiate transcription on its own, so a protein called sigma must bind to the polymerase before transcription can begin. This binding opens the DNA helix allowing DNA to become single stranded 3. RNA polymerase travels along the length of the template (original) strand. Converting DNA to RNA is a similar process to converting DNA to DNA.
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