BLG 311 - Chapter 1-3 - Introduction to the Cell.docx

BLG 311 - Chapter 1-3 - Introduction to the Cell.docx -...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Introduction to the Cell Chapter 1 Cells and Genomes Chapter 2 Cell Chemistry and Bioenergetics Chapter 3 Proteins 1.1 Basic structure of cells Non-membrane bound organelles : Ribosomes – work with mRNA to synthesize proteins (protein factory) Nucleolus – part of nucleus responsible for RNA splicing Cytoskeleton – provides structural support for the cell and provides tracks for moving organelles Centrioles – controls formation of microtubules, part of cytoskeleton Membrane bound organelles : Nucleus – double lipid bilayer that encloses and protects DNA Golgi apparatus – modifies and processing proteins and lipids; sorting to different parts of the cell Mitochondria – oxidation of energy molecules to make ATP (oxidative phosphorylation or respiration)
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Smooth ER – biosynthesis of lipids Rough ER – biosynthesis of proteins Plasma membrane – surrounds the cell, separates the outside world from the inside. Also, is responsible for forming semi-permeable membrane around cell Lysosomes – Degradation of membranes and proteins Peroxisomes (or Glyoxysomes in plants) – reduction/oxidation reactions, synthesis or breakdown of some lipids Endosomes – membrane-bound organelles that result from endocytosis (internalization) of material from the plasma membrane. These compartments are involved in sorting of material (among other things) Chloroplasts – found in plants, algae – use sunlight to make organic molecules from CO 2 and water (photosynthesis) 1.2 Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Bacteria and Archaea Animal, fungi and plants Circular DNA Linear DNA No nucleus Nucleus Limited organelles (lack mitochondria, chloroplast, nucleus etc.) Not limited to organelles Small Large Divide by binary fission Divide by mitosis and meiosis Unicellular Multicellular
Image of page 2
1.3 Chemical information flow: DNA to DNA, DNA to RNA, RNA to protein DNA replication (DNA to DNA) 1. Proteins open the double stranded DNA to turn it into a single stranded DNA 2. DNA polymerase is a structure that moves done the single stranded DNA to replicate it. DNA polymerase, however, cannot start replication on its own. So, an enzyme called RNA primer begins the task by creating a short sequence of RNA. DNA polymerase moves along the single stranded DNA and the RNA primer to create a new replicated DNA strand. DNA to RNA 1. DNA is transcribed to RNA polymerase. Transcription (transferring) is the process of copying hereditary information and transferring it from DNA to RNA 2. RNA polymerase cannot initiate transcription on its own, so a protein called sigma must bind to the polymerase before transcription can begin. This binding opens the DNA helix allowing DNA to become single stranded 3. RNA polymerase travels along the length of the template (original) strand. Converting DNA to RNA is a similar process to converting DNA to DNA.
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern