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OW monkeys .docx - Intro to Bio Anthro Part 2 Primate Order...

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Intro to Bio Anthro - Part 2 Primate Order 09/21/2017 Order o Primates One of 19 orders of extant eutherian (placental) mammals o Class mammalia - animals with share serived characteristics including hair, mammary glands, nurse young, etc o The 4th largest order of mammals, comprising about 6% of all species o Primates are generalized, mostly arboreal, mammals which makes them dificult to define Rodents are largest mammalian orders followed by chiroptera, soricomorpha, and then primates, carnivora, and artiodactyla Sherwood ‘Sherry’ Washburn 1911-2000 o Championed neo-darwinian approaches in anthroplogy and primatology o Call to arms in mid-20th centruy to anthropologists to address fundamental issues, holistically and across disciplines o Comparative Approach o Student of Earnest Hooton at Harvard o Father of the ‘The New Physical Anthropology’ (1951) Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778 o Karl Von Linne o Primates Defined including bats and flying lemurs Fore-teeth Cutting, upper 4 parallel, (except in some species of bats which have 2 or none) Tusks Solitary, that is, one on each side, in each jaw Teats 2 pectoral Feet 2 are hands Nails (usually) flattend, oval Food Fruits, except a few who use animal food St. George Jackson Mivart 1827-1900 o English biologistand critic of Darwin (in later years) o Improved upon linnaeus and in 1873 provided a revised, now ‘traditional’ definition of the order Established two primate suborders: prosimii and anthropoidea Removed bats and flying lemurs o Primate traits Placental mammals Unguiculate (posessing nails or claws)
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Clavicles present Orbits encircled by bone Three types of teeth, at least at one time of life Brain always with a posterior lobe and calcarine fissure Innermost digit of at least one pair of extremities opposble Hallux (big toe) with a flat nail or none A well developed caecum (appendix) Penis pedulous Testes scrotal Two pectoral mammae o The brain, innermost digit of at least on a pair of extremities opposable and hallux are only characters that do pan out Sir Wilfrid Le Gros Clark (1895-1971) o Distinguished anatomist, primatologist, and paleoanthropologist o Defined the order primates based on a series of anatomical trends, emphasizing Arboreal adaptations Dietary plasticity - eclectic diet Parental investment o Primate trends for Le Gros Clark Laundry list of details that can be found on the slides and we will cover these in more detail in Module 5 5 finger 5 toes - generalized limb structure Free mobility of the digits and opposable and grasping Nails, not claws Progressive shortening of the snout Elaboration of the visual apparatus, with the development of varying degrees of binocular vision Reduction of the olfactory apparatus (smell) Loss of certain elements of the primitive mammalian dentition Progressive expansion and elaboration of the brain, especially of the cerebral cortex
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