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' at 3 Exit! / ‘a’ a—se 1- Egg??? 3 (24%) l. Quorum sensing . Stationary phase . Sigma factor
Conjugation Auxotroph Lactic acid fermentation
. lcosahedral capsids . F plasmid II. ﬁgﬁ: (10%) 1. Please give an example to describe the measurement of bacterial growth numbers. 2. Please describe two chemical agents in terms of mechanism of action that can be used to
control microorganisms. HI- E—iEvEE: (16%) X unease ré‘Fiﬁﬁaﬁ’i’FgEJ ﬁﬂﬂﬁﬁtiﬁﬁi’ﬁg ° 1. 0.2 mls of a 10'4 dilution of a virus preparation yields 90 plaques. What is the number of
PFU per ml in the undiluted virus preparation?
A. 9.0 x105 B. 4.5 ><106 C. 4.5 x107 D. 9.0x 108 2. Bacteriophage that only exhibit lytic replication cycles are called phages.
A. temperate B. virulent C. intemperate D. lytigate 3. Which of the following has been associated with a form of liver cancer?
A. human papillcma virus
B. hepatitis B virus
C. human T-cell lymphotropic virus . D. hepatitis A virus 4. Which of the following does not use RNA as the genome?
A. adenovirus B. poliovirus C. inﬂuenza virus D. rabies virus 5. T ransposons that transpose by inserting a copy at a new location while a copy remains at the
original location are said to transpose by transposition.
A. simple B. composite C. incomplete D. replicative 6. The Ames test
A. can be used to measure the mutagenicity of chemicals.
B. is used to measure the repair of thymine dimers. C. is used to measure levels of oxygen free radicals. D. none of the choices 7. During sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, inactive precursor fonns of new sigma factors are
activated at the appropriate time by
B. RNA binding
D. chaperone re-folding 8. If Escherichia coli is cultured in broth containing both glucose and lactose, it
A. uses glucose preferentially until the supply is exhausted, then uses lactose.
B. uses lactose preferentially until the supply is exhausted, then uses glucose. C. uses glucose and lactose simultaneously.
D. uses only the glucose (it cannot use lactose as a source of carbon). .Bﬁﬁ 235% 3 472 BiiﬂkﬁQB'ﬁﬁ-ﬁiﬁfﬂﬁii‘ﬂﬁﬁﬁ it‘tﬁ ”taillaﬁCE) steam
at 3 its 2 a _ ‘ seas (slate ’ a-zoa) >:< snares: Pineal/rate. sang .. l. Archaeal membranes contain which of the following polar lipids?
A. phospholipids B. sulfolipids C. glycolipids D. all of these
2. Methanogens can live only in environments.
A. aerobic B. anaerobic C. microaerophilic D. all of these
3. Cyanobacteria are best described as
A. all being obligate photolithoautotrophs.
B. all being obligate chemoheterotrophs.
C. some being photolithoautotrophs that can ﬁmction as chemoheterotrophs in the dark.
D. none of the choices
4. Helicobacter pylori is responsible for
A. pneumonia. B. cholera. C. dysentery. D. peptic ulcer disease.
5. The process of conversion of ammonia to nitrate is referred to as
A. nitrogen ﬁxation. B. nitriﬁcation. C. ammoniﬁcation. D. denitriﬁcation.
6. Which of the following is associated with dental caries?
A. Streptococcus pneumoniae B. S. mutans C. E. fecaelis D. Lactococcus lactis
7. Which of the following members of the genus Bacillus is currently used as a biological insecticide?
A. B. cereus B. B. subtilr's C. B. anthracis D. B. fhuringiensis
8. Actinomycetes are usually found in habitats. A. soil B. freshwater C. marine . D. all of the choices
9. The body or vegetative structure of a ﬁingus is called a
A. mold. B. thallus. C. hypha. D. yeast.
10, In fungi, spores produced by budding are called
A. blastospores. B. conidiospores. C. arthrospores. D. sporangiospores.
11. The primary storage polysaccharide in ﬁingi is
A. glycogen. B. cellulose. C. starch. D. none of the choices
12. A major fully reduced form of carbon, important in biogeochemical cycling is
A. carbon dioxide. B. carbohydrate. C. methane. D. hydrogen sulﬁde.
13. When microorganisms such as algae use dissolved carbon dioxide present in freshwater ecosystems, the
water pH will
A. increase. B. decrease. C. not be changed. D. ﬁrst increase then decrease.
. A mature activated B cell is called a(n)
A. plasma cell. B. dendritic cell. C. natural killer cell. D. spleen cell.
. Which of the following is a physical barrier in the nonspeciﬁc defense of a mammalian host?
A. inﬂammation B. phagocytosis C. fever D. mucous membranes
. The alternate complement pathway plays an important role in
A. innate immunity. B. aquired immunity. C. speciﬁc immunity.
D. both innate immunity and speciﬁc immunity.
17. The characteristics of a pathogen that determine its virulence include which of the following? A. patho genicity B. invasiveness C. infectivity D. all of the choices ear: 333% 1 472 @iiﬁk$98$$ﬁﬁﬁ :lrliiia'i#éiﬁﬂi are iiiiiilhﬁw) stem
at 3 Ea? 3 E 18. Ti DNA of the genus Agrobacrerium
A. is required for nitrogen ﬁxation.
B. has been used to construct genetically engineered plants. C. carries the genes needed for root nodule development. D. carries the genes needed for formation of bacteroids.
19. T cells produce and secrete factors which do not directly interact with invading microorganisms but which augment the body's defense mechanisms. These molecules are called A. antibodies. B. cytokines. C. immunogens. D. augmetins. 20. A plasmid bearing one or more antibiotic resistance genes is a(n)
A. F plasmid. B. A plasmid. C. R plasmid, D. D factor. :_ ~ nemeeaaeseee ’ EriES’J} ’ ) i. Exotoxin A. Water soluble I. Direct contact éHOéa‘) ) 2. Endotoxin B. Water insoluble J. Indirect contact
C. Glycoprotein K. Weakly immunogenic
D. Lipoprotein L. Highly immunogenic
E. Heat-stable M. Glycopolysaccharide
F. Heat-labile N. Lipopolysaccharide
G. Species speciﬁc 0. Xenobiotic H. Non—speciﬁc P. Gnotobiotic 5- ‘ éﬁliﬁﬁ = TE]Eiﬁiiaﬁﬁﬂﬁeﬁﬁéﬁﬁkﬁé‘mﬂéiiﬁiﬁiﬁi’eﬁ‘ifciiﬁiﬁ ’ %%
EﬁﬁJﬁEiﬁﬁéﬁi’Fﬂi/ﬁiﬁ ° (ﬁie-Zé} ’ vii-10%) Anaerobic Aerobic Carbon fixation Organic matter
(CH9) co 3. Anaerobic
and ( Carbon
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- Fall '09