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BioSpringObjectives2.docx - Describe the shared derived...

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Describe the shared derived characteristics of the plant kingdom. Describe the key adaptations to life on land for different groups of plants Waxy cuticle Protection from desiccation Relatively impermeable, prevents water loss But, limits gas exchange essential for respiration and photosynthesis Can limit gas diffusion through stomata Stomata can be closed at times to limit water loss Tracheids Specialized cells to facilitate transport of water and minerals Evolved highly efficient transport systems Water conducting xylem, food conducting phloem Alternating generations Terrestrial plants exposed to more UV, increasing chance of mutation Potential consequence of pyrimidine dimer Diploid genomes mask effect of single deleterious allele Land plants have both haploid and diploid generations Evolutionary shift to dominant diploid generation Greater genetic variability Allow for greater genetic variability to persist in terrestrial plants Identify the characteristics of and provide examples of the different major groups of plants: Bryophytes: mosses Small, furry, no vasculature Cover rocks & trees in wet areas Absorb moisture from humid surroundings Through osmosis Have minimally specialized structures Reproduce by spores Sporangia on stalk capsules Ex) liverwort, hornwort, moss Seedless vascular plants: ferns Non-woody Leaves in sections, may be curled up Has xylem & phloem Reproduce by spores Sporangia under leaves Gymnosperms: Conifers/pines Woody trees with needle-like leaves and cones Has xylem & phloem Reproduce by seeds Seeds stored and released from female cones Angiosperms: Flowering plants
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Roots, stems, leaves Produce flowers Has xylem and phloem Reproduce with spores, distributed through fruits Flowers for pollination Describe the alternation of generation life cycle and be able to apply to: Describe the key events of the moss life cycle. Nonvascular plants are gametophyte dominant Gametophyte produces sperm/egg (haploid, 1 set of chromosomes) Female and male gametes can develop on same gametophyte or on separate plants Gametophyte is photosynthetic Sperm and egg find each other and fertilize Sperm needs to be wet enough to swim to the egg with flagella Through dew/rainwater Water-dependent reproduction Once fertilized, diploid zygote is created Zygote divides by mitosis into sporophyte (diploid, 2 sets of chromosomes) Capsule on a stalk with spores Base embedded in gametophyte tissue, its nutritional source Spores released into air, finds a moist place to grow Spores create gametophytes of a new generation Describe the key events of the fern life cycle.
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