BioTest4.docx - Compare the structure of RNA and DNA...

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Compare the structure of RNA and DNA. Outline nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate. DNA Nucleic acid polymers, with nucleotide monomers Each nucleotide contains a 5C sugar, phosphate group, and one nitrogenous base Double helix structure Sugars and phosphates bond to create backbone that run in opposite directions (3’5 -> 5’3 hydroxyl groups) Two chains linked by nitrogenous bases and hydrogen bonds RNA Nucleic acid polymers, with nucleotide monomers Single stranded molecule Sugar is ribose, has one more oxygen than DNA Shorter-lived and less stable Not bound to complement Uracil, not thymine nitrogenous base Also run in 3’ to 5’ or 5’ to 3’ State the names of the five bases in DNA and RNA; classify them as either purine or pyrimidine. DNA: Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, Thymine Adenine & Guanine: Purines, with two rings in their molecular structure. Thymine & Cytosine: Pyrimidines, with one ring in their molecular structure. RNA: Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, Uracil Adenine & Guanine: Purines, with two rings in their molecular structure. Uracil & Cytosine: Pyrimidines, with one ring in their molecular structure. Outline how DNA nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds into a single strand. Nucleotides are linked into a single strand via a condensation reaction The phosphate group (attached to the 5'-C of the sugar) joins with the hydroxyl (OH) group attached to the 3'-C of the sugar This results in a phosphodiester bond between the two nucleotides and the formation of a water molecule Successive condensation reactions between nucleotides results in the formation of a long single strand Explain how a DNA double helix is formed using complementary base pairing and hydrogen bonds. Two strands held together by formation of hydrogen bonds btwn bases on opposite strands Strands must run in antiparallel directions
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As the polynucleotide chain lengthens, the atoms that make up the molecule will arrange themselves in an optimal energy configuration Purine will link with a pyrimidine, A&T/C&G have same proportions in DNA Adenine and thymine link together by forming two hydrogen bonds Guanine and cytosine link together by forming 3 hydrogen bonds Purine and pyrimidine linkage keeps the diameter of each base pair the same If not paired correctly, will not form proper hydrogen bonds’ Forms hydrogen than covalent bonds to more easily break down when need to be replicated Draw and label a simple diagram of the molecular structure of DNA. Distinguish between 3’ and 5’ ends of nucleic acids both in terms of structure and function.
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