BioTest2.docx - Identify the role of binary fission in cell...

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Identify the role of binary fission in cell cycles State that prokaryotes divide by binary fission Describe the process of binary fission Asexual Reproduction Copy bacterial DNA (circular), DNA moves to the 2 opposite sides of cells, and cytokinesis occurs Forms 2 genetically identical cells Describe the structure of eukaryotic chromosomes Contrast replicated and non-replicated chromosomes. Non-replicated: Each chromosome is composed of 1 DNA molecule Replicated: Each chromosome is composed of 2 identical DNA molecules held together by cohesins As chromosomes become more condensed, become` more visible as 2 strands held together at centromere Now becomes 1 chromosome of 2 sister chromatids Define homologous chromosomes A pair of chromosomes each from one parent, that are similar but not identical and carries the same genes in the same locations Alleles for each trait may not necessarily be the same Distinguish between homologues and sister chromatids Sister chromatids are replicate of a single chromosome held together at centromeres by cohesin proteins after DNA replication Mostly identical Homologous chromosomes are maternal and paternal copies of the same chromosome Only share the same size and shape Might not always have the same version of a gene in each chromosome of the pair State that, in karyotyping, chromosomes are arranged in pairs according to their size and structure. Analyze a human karyotype to determine gender and whether non- disjunction has occurred. XY Chromosome= Male, XX Chromosome= Female Each chromosome should be a pair of 2, chromosomes of 3= trisomy, chromosomes of 1= monosomy Describe the eukaryotic cell cycle Outline the stages in the cell cycle, including interphase (G1, S, G2), mitosis (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase) and cytokinesis Interphase G1: primary growth phase of the cell, usually the longest phase (G0): after G1, cells could enter resting state for any given time, could be permanently S: replicates chromosome to create 2 sister chromatids, attached at centromere G2: second growth phase, preparation for separation of newly replicated DNA , microtubules reorganize as spindles Mitosis: When spindle assembles, binds to chromosomes and moves sister chromatids apart
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Cytokinesis: Division of cytoplasm, creating 2 daughter cells In animal cells, cleavage furrow forms to divide cells In plant cells, a cell plate forms between the dividing cells Recognize that interphase is an active period in the life of a cell when many metabolic reactions occur, including protein synthesis, DNA replication and an increase in the number of mitochondria and/or chloroplasts.
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