BioUnit3.docx - Objectives As a result of their studies in...

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Objectives: As a result of their studies in this unit, a student should be able to: Define and distinguish between gene and allele. Gene : a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic. Allele : one specific form of a gene, differing from other alleles by one or a few bases only and occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the gene. Explain the relationship between a genotype and a phenotype ( you must be not only familiar with the concepts of dominant allele, recessive allele, locus, homozygous, heterozygous, and carrier; but you should have their use automated…). Genotype : the alleles of an organism, the blueprint of an individual Phenotype : the physical characteristics of an organism that are expressed, the visible outcome of the individual’s blueprint Dominant allele : an allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is present in the homozygous or heterozygous state. When paired with a recessive allele, it may mask the recessive trait in its phenotype. Recessive allele : an allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in the homozygous state. In the phenotypes of heterozygous states, it may be masked by the paired dominant allele, even if it’s latent in the genotype. Codominant alleles : pairs of alleles that are both equally expressed in phenotype when present in a heterozygote. (Don’t confuse this with incomplete dominance!!!) Ex) Multi-colored spots in cats, AB blood type. Locus : the particular position on homologous chromosomes of a gene. Homozygous : having two identical alleles of a gene. Can be homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive. True-bred organisms are always homozygous, bc when self-crossed, they produce offspring of identical genotypes. Heterozygous : having two different alleles of a gene. Carrier : an individual that has one copy of a recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this allele.
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