BioFinalObjectives.docx - Describe the basic levels of...

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Describe the basic levels of biological organization in animals (organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system). Organelle Simplest level of organization for living things Composed of aggregates of macromolecules Small structures that exist within cells Cell Basic unit of a living organism Cells arise from existing cells All living things are composed of one or more cells Tissue Groups of similar cells carrying out similar/related functions Organ Collections of tissues grouped together to perform common function Organ System Higher level of organization consisting of functionally related organs Briefly explain a structure-function relationship at each of the basic levels of biological organization in animals. Organelle Ex) Mitochondria Double membrane forms matrix & inner membrane space Creates proton gradient across inner membrane for chemiosmosis Cristae is the inner membrane that shapes into folds Greatly increases the SA for oxidative metabolism On surface and embedded in it are proteins for oxidative metabolism Cell Ex) Plasma membrane, no cell wall Can change shape and rounded Fxn: Dvlpt of tissues, organs, organ systems Needs to connect to other cells physically Eliminates need for individual cells to be protected from outside world Ex) Compartmentalization Within cell allows various reactions to occur simultaneously Tissue Ex) Smooth Muscles Sheets of long, spindle-shaped cells Each cell contains one nucleus Occurs in organs of internal environment Lines walls of many blood vessels Walls of digestive tracts (esophagus) Involuntary movement Spontaneously initiate electrical impulses Organ Ex) Capillaries (Blood Vessels) Extremely thin wall Easy diffusion of gases across membrane Ex) Small intestine Villi and microvilli have a high surface area to volume ratio Covered in villi Maximize their nutrient absorption Organ System Capillaries wrapped around alveoli (Circulatory & Respiratory)
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Identify the function of different organ systems in animals.
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