pt 2 notes.docx - Lecture 5 The Realist Critique Carr...

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Lecture 5 09/15/2017 ° The Realist Critique- Carr ° Modern realism reveals relative & pragmatic nature of thought o Demonstrates that utopianism historically conditioned Not a cause but an effect o Theories invented to explain course of events Thought is also relative to direction of purpose o Most common purpose is to discredit other theories Propagated to reflect moral credit on oneself o Principles are often deduced from policies Relativity of thought should be used to demolish utopian standards o Theories of international morality are prod of dom nations o Current international virtue have naturally been created by English speaking states The wealthy class will shape the harmony of interests of community o Prosperous & privileged have dominant voice o Can be applied in IR, of promoting global prosperity Internationalism is a special doctrine of harmony of interests o Countries struggling to force their way into dominant group tend to invoke nationalism Against internationalism of Great Powers
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o Real events in international politics is realist evidence against utopianism Seemingly absolute principles are just policies based on national interest at a given time ° ° Diplomacy of Violence- Schelling ° Violence most successful when not used o Coercion- the threat of violence With enough military force, a state can destroy value By sheer strength, a state can take without bargain o Has power to hurt, dropping nuclear bomb on Hiroshima Not necessarily to kill those specific people A representation of larger violence for the whole country Nuclear Era- Changes power relations o Game changer in bargaining o Ex) N. Korea, could affect Seoul & still has power to hurt Strategic role of pain usually from a powerful to a weak state o As a representation of violence against country o Not as an attack on material strength Nuclear Power has made potential of war so strong as unusable o Nuclear weapons compresses global war into seconds Both victors & losers could do devastating violence
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Victory is not a prerequisite to hurt the enemy o Modern tech enhanced strategic importance of violence Military strategy is art of intimidation & deterrence ° ° The Melian Dialogue- Thucydides ° Pelopennesian War: Athens vs Melos o Athens: Realist, rational Give ultimatum, lay siege and destroy you, or surrender o Melos: Idealist? Take elements of realism & others Allies of Sparta & Gods Athenian Argument: Large country o Conquering others increases size and security of state Allied peace seen as weakness by the people o Law of nature to rule whatever one can Power relations will dictate terms of terms/bargains Big country can do what it prefers Melian Argument: o Sanctity of alliances, and smaller states can beat larger states o One realist argument: Spartans will aid them Balancing: If Athenians attack them, all the other lesser neutral powers will back Spartans
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° What is Power-Nye °
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