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BioTest.docx - Objectives As a result of their studies in...

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Obj ectives: As a result of their studies in this unit, student should be able to: Explain how organisms use energy and matter to form living structures and perform life processes. Respiration (Reverse of photosynthesis) Glucose broken down to provide energy for organism Contains chem potential energy -> ATP Used by cell for work Aerobic resp w/ presence of oxygen Byproducts of water and carbon dioxide Photosynthesis Organisms input inorganic reactants Water, carbon dioxide Output organic product of glucose Byproduct of oxygen Forming living structures, organisms use matter & energy Matter Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, hydrogen Use matter in life processes Chem reactions Ex) Production of polypeptide Replication of genetic material Movement of protein Energy Anabolic process Ex) dehydration Endergonic Requires the input of free energy Energy and matter work against increasing disorder of universe Organisms must constantly expend energy to maintain matter in organized forms Keeps hierarchical organization of atoms molecules cells organs organisms intact Differentiate between kinetic and potential energy Kinetic energy is the energy of motion Energy of motion Moving objects perform work by causing other matter to move Ex) car racing down a highway Potential energy is stored energy Objects not actively moving / Stored energy Have a capacity to do so Ex) Ball balanced at top of a hill PE -> KE Ball starts rolling down the hill Identify the source of energy for the biosphere Ultimate source of energy for living systems is sun Photosynthesis: energy absorbed from sunlight used to combine water & CO2 to sugars Converts carbons from inorganic to organic Energy from sunlight stored as PE in covalent bonds Contrast oxidation and reduction reactions Oxidation Loss of 1 electron from an element Gaining 1 oxygen atom
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Losing 1 hydrogen atom Reduction (NAD -> NADH) Gain of 1 electron Losing 1 oxygen atom Gaining 1 hydrogen atom Ex) NAD -> NADH Reduced form has higher PE than oxidized form Explain the laws of thermodynamics (** if you think this is only important in chemistry or physics, think again! These laws are an important theme of this course!**) 1st Law: Energy can neither be created or destroyed, only transformed Total amount of energy in universe remains constant 2nd Law: With every energy transformation, disorder increases Total entropy of universe is always increasing Analyze free energy changes in energy coupling that use ATP hydrolysis. Describe the role of ATP in energy coupling reactions.
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