Biol118 Lec 4 nucleic acids S.pptx

Biol118 Lec 4 nucleic acids S.pptx - Nucleic Acids Chapter...

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Nucleic Acids Chapter 4
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How did life begin? RNA world hypothesis (not theory) -Chemical evolution led to the production of RNA, which both stores genetic information and replicates it. The replication process created random errors- variation upon which selection can act. RNA is information itself and there are mistakes- the mutations that are favorable will continue to show in offspring while the non favorable ones will disappear natural selection RNA= First Life
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What is a nucleic acid? Polymers made up of monomer nucleotides. o Phosphate group o Five carbon sugar (central component)- has numbers to label each carbon as a point of reference o Nitrogenous base
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What is a nucleic acid? Ribonucleotides-monomers of ribonucleic acid (RNA) Deoxyribonucleotides-monomers of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
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What is a nucleic acid?
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How did life begin? If nucleic acids played a role in the chemical evolution of life, there should be evidence of nucleic acids in early, pre-biotic oceans…is there?
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Did life begin with nucleic acids? Lab experiments show that nitrogenous bases and many types of sugars, including ribose, can be synthesized in an early, prebiotic ocean simulation. In experiments that focus on thermal vents, minerals preferentially bound to ribose, causing ribose to concentrate and separate from the other sugars. However, experiments have failed to demonstrate the synthesis of complete nucleotides. Therefore, this idea remains a hypothesis.
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How do nucleotides polymerize to form nucleic acids? Nucleotides polymerize via condensation reactions between hydroxyl on the sugar and the phosphate group…. Phosphodiester bond, causing a molecule of water to be released. This bond creates RNA and DNA.
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Are DNA and RNA strands directional? Yes. One end has an unlinked 5’ phosphate and the other has an unlinked 3’ hydroxyl. The order of the nucleotides is the primary structure and what makes up our genome. When speaking of DNA, just list sequences by single letter abbreviations in 5’ to 3’ direction.
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Does polymerization require energy? Polymerization reactions that make RNA and DNA are catalyzed by enzymes. Not spontaneous (decrease entropy). Polymerization can occur because of activated nucleotides…nucleoside triphosphates like adenosine triphosphate, ATP
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Does polymerization require energy?
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