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Unformatted text preview: Week 1 Chap 1 -­‐ 3 Tuesday, September 19, 2 017 12:35 PM Chapter 1: The chemical world 1.1 Soda Pop Fizz -­‐Carbon dioxide molecule has 2 oxygen atoms & 1 carbon atom -­‐Water molecule has 2 hydrogen atoms & 1 oxygen atom -­ Atoms and molecules = tiny particles that compose all common matter, and chemical bonds as the attachments that holds atoms together. -­ Pressure -­‐ result of collisions between gaseous molecules and the surfaces around them (carbon dioxide molecules mixed with water molecules) 1.2 Chemicals compose ordinary things -­ LO: chemicals make up virtually everything we come into contact with in our world. -­ "Chemistry explains the properties and behavior of chemicals, in the broadest sense, by helping us understand the molecules that compose them." 1.3 All things are made of atoms and molecules -­ LO: all things are made of atoms and molecules * -­ Atoms and molecules determine how matter behaves -­ "Chemistry is the science that tries to understand how matter behaves by studying how atoms and molecules behave." 1.4 The scientific method: How chemists think -­ LO: ID and understand: observation, forming hypothesis, testing hypothesis, forming laws and theories. Definitions: -­ Scientific method: a way of learning that emphasizes observation and experimentation … to understand the world. -­ Observation: is the first step in acquiring scientific knowledge. It is the measurement of an aspect in nature. These include simple observations or observations that rely on sensitive instrumentation of the physical world. -­ Formulation of hypothesis: tentative interpretation or explanation of the -­ Scientific method: a way of learning that emphasizes observation and experimentation … to understand the world. -­ Observation: is the first step in acquiring scientific knowledge. It is the measurement of an aspect in nature. These include simple observations or observations that rely on sensitive instrumentation of the physical world. -­ Formulation of hypothesis: tentative interpretation or explanation of the observations. -­ Falsifiable: further testing has the potential to prove a good hypothesis wrong. -­ Experiments: test hypothesis. They are highly controlled observations designed to validate or invalidate hypothesis. -­ Scientific law: developed by a number of similar observations. Law is a brief statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones. Example: "in a chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destroyed." -­ Scientific theory: formed by one or more well-­‐established hypothesis. Also known as a model. Theories provide a broader and deeper explanation for observations and laws. Models of the way nature is and predicts behaviors that are extended. Theories are also tested and validated by experiments. -­ B 1.1 What is the difference between a law and a theory? How does the example of the phlogiston theory demonstrate this difference? ○ A law states previous observations and predicts future ones ○ A theory is one or more established hypothesis. ○ The phlogiston theory is an demonstrates the difference because the theory was tested and validated by an experiment. Making it a model. 1.5 A beginning chemist: How to succeed 1. Curiosity and imagination. You must want to know they why of things. 2. Calculation. Quantification involves measurement as part of observation. 3. Commitment. Commit to learning. Chapter Review: 100% 1. D 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. D Exercises: 1. Why does soda fizz? 2. What are chemicals? Give some examples. 3. What do chemists try to do? 4. How do they understand the natural world? Exercises: 1. Why does soda fizz? 2. What are chemicals? Give some examples. 3. What do chemists try to do? 4. How do they understand the natural world? 5. What is meant by the statement, “Matter does what molecules do”? Give an example. 6. Define chemistry. How is chemistry connected to everyday life? How is chemistry relevant outside the chemistry laboratory? 7. Explain the scientific method. 8. Cite an example from this chapter of the scientific method at work. 9. What is the difference between a law and a theory? 10. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory? 11. What is wrong with the statement, “It is just a theory”? 12. What is the law of conservation of mass, and who discovered it? 13. What is the atomic theory, and who formulated it? 14. What are three things you need to do to succeed in this course? Problems: 15. Examine the opening figure of this chapter. Use the information in Section 1.1 to identify the two molecules sitting next to the cola glass and identify each of the atoms within each molecule. 16. Examine Figure 1.1 and, from a molecular point of view, explain why soda pop fizzes. What molecules are inside the bubbles in a glass of soda pop? 17. Classify each statement as an observation, a law, or a theory. a. When a metal is burned in a closed container, the sum of the masses of the container and its contents does not change. b. Matter is made of atoms. c. Matter is conserved in chemical reactions. d. When wood is burned in a closed container, its mass does not change. 18. Classify each statement as an observation, a law, or a theory. a. The star closest to Earth is moving away from Earth at high speed. b. A body in motion stays in motion unless acted upon by a force. c. The universe began as a cosmic explosion called the Big Bang. d. A stone dropped from an altitude of 450 m falls to the ground in 9.6 s. 19. Charts… • Chemistry is identification of substances. How properties interact combine and change. • Physics concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy. Mechanics, heat, light and structure of atoms. • Biochemistry chemical and physicochemical processes that occur within living organisms • Chemistry is identification of substances. How properties interact combine and change. • Physics concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy. Mechanics, heat, light and structure of atoms. • Biochemistry chemical and physicochemical processes that occur within living organisms • Biology study of living organisms -­‐ specialized fields that cover morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin and distribution. -­ There is a saying that claims Biology only works because of chemistry and chemistry only works because of physics. Biological processes of living organisms depend upon the interactions of the atoms, molecules and compounds that make up living tissues and the environment in which life takes place. ...
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