BIOFUEL PRESENTATION.pptx - What is Biofuel Biofuels are...

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What is Biofuel? “Biofuels are energy resources made from living things, or the waste that living things produce”. An alternative to petroleum based fuel. Burns cleanly. Commonly used biofuels is ethanol, biodiesel and biobutanol.
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Biofuels can divide in two parts: 1. First generation or conventional biofuel - Made from sugar, starch or vegetable oil. E.g Ethanol, biodiesel. 2. Second generation or advanced biofuel – made from various types of biomass. Eg. Cellulose ethanol, algae fuel. 2 nd generation biofuel is more difficult to extract because series of physical and chemical treatment are required to convert lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuel suitable for transportation.
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TYPES OF BIOFUEL 1. First Generation Biofuels •. Made from sugar, starch, or vegetable oil. •. Feedstock (the plant or algal material from which they are generated) is not sustainable/green or, if used in large quantity, would have a large impact on the food supply. •. Are the “original” biofuels and constitute the majority of biofuels currently in use. 2. Second Generation Biofuels •. Are “greener” in that they are made from sustainable feedstock. •. In this use, the term sustainable is defined by the availability of the feedstock, the impact of its use on greenhouse gas emissions, its impact on biodiversity, and its impact on land use (water, food supply, etc.). •. Are underdevelopment and not widely available for use.
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Biofuel Table Source :
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Fuel Feedstock Energy Density (megajoules/kilogram) Greenhouse Gas CO 2 (kg/kg) Notes First Generation Bioalcohol Ethanol Propanol Butanol Starches from wheat, corn, sugar cane, molasses, potatoes, other fruits By Type 30 34 36.6 By Type 1.91 N/A 2.37 Biodiesel Oils and fats including animal fats, vegetable oils, nut oils, hemp, and algae 37.8 2.85 Green Diesel Made from hydrocracking oil and fat feedstock 48.1 3.4 Chemically identical to fossil fuel diesel Vegetable Oil Castor Oil Olive Oil Fat Sunflower Oil Unmodified or slightly modified By Type 39.5 39 32 40 By Type 2.7 2.8 N/A 2.8 Bioethers Dehydration of alcohols N/A N/A These are additives to other fuels that increase performance and decrease emissions, particularly ozone Biogas Methane made from waste crop material through anaerobic digestion or bacteria 55 2.74 (does not take into account the direct effect of methane, which is 23X more effective as a GHG than CO 2 Same properties as methane from fossil fuels Solid Biofuels Wood Dried plants Bagasse Manure Seeds
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