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Test Development •What are the different phases of test development?oThere are five major phases of test development. They are listed below. 1.Test Conceptualization 2.Test Construction 3.Test Tryout 4.Item Analysis 5.Test Revision •What is involved in the "Test Conceptualization" phase?oThe first phase, "Test Conceptualization," involves thinking about what the test is designed to measure. In order to do this one must first define the concept. After defining the concept, one must turn the concept into a construct and then define the construct. Then one must think about a sensible way to measure the construct. •What is involved in the "Test Construction" phase?oThe "Test Construction" phase involves first determining the level of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio). As discussed in your text (pp. 159-168), there are a number of item formats that can be used including the dichotomous format, the polytomous format, the Likert format, the category format, and checklists among others. The dichotomous format"offers two alternatives for each item." The true-false format is the one most often used. In the polytomous formatthere are more than two alternatives per item. We typically think of these as multiple choice items. In multiple choice ability tests there is one correct option and the other incorrect options are referred to as distractors.A good item will have plausible distractors that each receive at least some endorsements. Bad items include distractors that are different in form and/or explicitness from the correct option. Note the following item: An atom is a. a compound b. a mixture c. a molecule d. the basic "building block" of matter, consisting of a nucleus surrounded by electrons in orbitsNotice how option "d," the correct option, stands out from the distractors. Either "d" should be simplified or options "a" though "c" should be elaborated to make them look more like "d." Just because an item is a difficult does not mean that it is a "tricky" item. A tricky item is one that measures something different than the concept being evaluated. Let's look at the following item: If you bought 3 candy bars each costing 15 cents, how much change should you get back from $1.00?
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