Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 :
Abraham Lincoln - One of the most skillful politicians in Republican party. Lawyer. Tried to b
gain national exposure by debates with Stephen A. Douglas. debates attracted much attention.
attacks on slavery made him nationally known. felt slavery was morally wrong, but was not an
abolitionist. He felt there was not an alternative to slavery and blacks were not prepared to live
on equal terms as whites. Won presidency in November election
Antietam - battle in Maryland that ended Lee's first invasion of the North. Known for being the
bloodiest day in the war, and led to the Emancipation Proclamation
Appomattox court house - in Virginia, was the place where the war ended and Lee surrendered
Bull run - battle in which the Confederate army forced most of the Union army out of Virginia.
General Lee defeated General Pope's Union forces.
Clara Barton - the first woman to go onto a battlefield in the United States to nurse the
wounded soldiers: later, she set up the American Red Cross
Emancipation proclamation - issued by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Antietam. It
declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free. caused an outcry to
rise from the South who said that Lincoln was trying to stir up slave rebellion. The North now
had a much stronger moral cause- It had to preserve the Union and free the slaves.
Fort Sumter - Built following the War of 1812, and still not completely finished by 1861, the
fort is located in Charleston Harbor, SC. Fort Sumter is best remembered for the Battle of Fort
Sumter, where the first shots of the civil war were fired. Once the Confederate States of America
took control of Charleston Harbor, they soon aimed coastal guns on the fort, and fired. After the
battle, 4 more states seceded, and their was more support for military action.
George B. McClellan - given command of the army of the potomac, Fought in the Peninsula
Campaign and the battle of Antietam.
Gettysburg - Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people
died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Greenbacks - Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate
depending on status of the war (plural)
Homestead act - In 1862 congress passed the homestead act offering 160 acres of free land to
any citizen or intended citizen who was head of the household.
Jefferson Davis - Jefferson Davis was the President of the Southern Confederate States from
1860 to 1865 after their secession from the Union. During this time, Davis struggled to form a
solid government for the states to be governed by. Jefferson Davis worked hard with solidating
the civil government and carrying out military operations. POLITICAL.
March to the sea - *November--December Led by General William T. Sherman, 60,000
northern troops swarmed over the Georgia countryside south of Atlanta, consuming and/or destroying everything in their path; operations concluded at Savannah, Georgia, on the Atlantic
coast; Union victory.
Morrill land grant act - 1862 law in which the federal government distributed millions of acres
of western lands to the state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges
Robert e lee - The General of the Confederate troops; he was prosperous in many battles; was
defeated at Antietam in 1862 when he retreated across the Potomac; this halt of Lee's troops
justified Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation; he was defeated at Gettysburg by
General Mead's Union troops; surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House on
April 9, 1865.
Shiloh - the second great battle of the American Civil War (1862)
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson - Lee's chief lieutenant, killed by own men at Chancellorsville
Ulysses s. Grant - A Northern general who helped gain victory for the union. His first successful
victories came at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson on the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers in
February 1862. These victories opened a door for the Union to the rest of the south. Eventually
Grant was given command of the Union forces attacking Vicksburg. This would be his greatest
victory of the war. Grant was made General-in-Chief after several more impressive victories near
Chattanooga. Grant's final victory came when he defeated General Robert E.
U.S. Sanitary Commission - Founded with the help of Elizabeth Blackwell, the government
agency trained nurses, collected medical supplies and equipped hospitals in an effort to help the
Union Army. The commission helped professionalize nursing and gave many women the
confidence and organizational skills to propel the women's movement in the postwar years.
William tecumseh sherman - He fought in the Vicksburg and Chattanooga campaigns and he
undertook the Atlanta Campaign. He burned Atlanta and set off, with a force of 60,000, on his
famous march to the sea, devastating the country. After capturing Savannah, he turned north
through S. Carolina, and received the surrender of General Johnston Chapter 15 :
Andrew Johnson - Lincoln's vice president; & President after the assassination. He was a
Jacksonian Democrat; from Tennessee but after the secession from the Union he stayed in the
Senate because his loyalty lay with the Union; a month after Lincoln's death he began his
Reconstruction vision which offered amnesty to Southerners who promised to keep their
allegiance to the Constitution, however the Southern elite were exempt from this because
Johnson blamed them for secession
Atlanta Compromise - A speech made by Washington in Atlanta that outlined the philosophy
that blacks should focus on economic gains, go to school, learn skills, and work their way up the
ladder and that Southern whites should help out to create an unresentful people.
Black Codes - Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states
following the Civil War
Booker T. Washington - A former slave. Encouraged blacks to keep to themselves and focus on
the daily tasks of survival, rather than leading a grand uprising. Believed that building a strong
economic base was more critical at that time than planning an uprising or fighting for equal
rights. Washington also stated in his famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech in 1895 that blacks
had to accept segregation in the short term as they focused on economic gain to achieve political
equality in the future. Served as important role models for later leaders of the civil rights
Carpetbaggers - A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the
Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up
land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative
Charles Sumner - aggressive abolitionist who was physically assaulted by Preston Brooks after
making a strong antislavery speech. He was one of the leaders of the radical Republicans'
Reconstruction program and was also an active participant in the impeachment of Andrew
Compromise of 1877 - Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between
Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in
exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
Crop- Lien System - System that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops
to pay back their loans.
Enforcement Acts - Prohibited radical anti-black groups and protected the voting rights of
Fourteenth Amendment - amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1868, defining
national citizenship and forbidding the states to restrict the basic rights of citizens or other
persons. Freedmen’s Bureau - An army agency, headed by George Howard, distributed food, established
schools and give blacks their own land.
Hamilton Fish - member of the Grant administration, he was an able diplomat who peacefully
settled conflicts with Great Britain through the Treaty of Washington, in which Canada gave the
U.S. permanent fishing rights to the St. Lawrence River.
Ida B. Wells - the lynching of blacks outraged her, an african american journalist. in her
newspaper, free speech, wells urged african americans to protest the lynchings. she called for a
boycott of segregated streetcars and white owned stores. she spoke out despite threats to her life.
Jim Crow Laws - The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the
Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
Ku Klux Klan- founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through
threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be
Panic of 1873 - Four year economic depression caused by over speculation on railroads and
western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
Plessy v Ferguson - a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so
long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Radical Republicans - Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after
Redeemers - Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican
program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back
southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy.
Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
Scalawags - A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land
from desperate Southerners. Former Whigs usually
Sharecropping - When someone works their own plots of land and pays their landlord either a
fixed rent or shore of their crop
Thaddeus Stevens - A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South.
Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress. (PA)
Wade-Davis Bill - an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office
for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was
William Seward - Secretary of State who was shot the night before Lincoln
Californios-a term used to identify a Californian of Hispanic; most were descendants of the
Spanish and Mexican conquerors who had once ruled California. Much of Californio society lived at or near the many missions; but they were overthrown when the civil war broke out and
by 1870 the Californios' brief ascendency had utterly vanished.
Chief Joseph-Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations.
However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
Chinese Exclusion Act- 1882, halted Chinese immigration to America; Started when people of
the West Coast attributed declining wages and economic troubles to the hated Chinese workers;
In order to appease them Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act
Chisholm Trail-The Chisholm Trail was one of the first, busiest, and most famous cattle trails
from the open range of south Texas to the railhead in Abilene, Kansas.
“Concentration” policy-adopted by the U.S. government to deal with Native Americans in the
late nineteenth century. Indians were persuaded to accept defined limits to their hunting ground.
This enabled the government to negotiate with each tribe separately—a strategy of divide and
Coolies- Indentured servants whose condition was close to slavery. When many Chinese moved
to Hawaii, Australia, Latin America, South Africa, and even the Caribbean, some went as these.
Dawes Severalty Act- This provided for the gradual elimination of most tribal ownership of land
and the allotment of tracts to individual owners: 160 acres to the head of a family, 80 acres to a
single adult or orphan, 40 acres to each dependent child. Adult owners were given United States
citizenship, but unlike other citizens, they could not gain full title to their property for
twenty-five years (supposedly to prevent them from selling the land to speculators). Created in
Fredrick Jackson Turner- American historian who said that humanity would continue to
progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless
and solved social problems.
Fredric Remington-One of the most beloved and successful artists of the nineteenth century. A
painter and sculptor whose works came to represent the romance of the West. He portrayed the
cowboy as a natural aristocrat, much like Wister's The Virginian, living in a natural world in
which all the normal supporting structures of "civilization" were missing.
Genizaros- Indians without tribes and at the bottom. Part of Spanish society.
George A. Custer-General at Little Bighorn.
Geronimo- Kept battling for Indian rights and didn't want to assimilate.
Homestead Act-Permitted settlers to buy plots of 160 acres for a small fee if they occupied the
land they purchased for 5 years and improved it. Not enough to sustain a family farm.
Little Bighorn- Battle where mass amount of Indians gathered to battle assimilation.
Long Drive- Trails that linked isolated cattle breeders of Texas to the Urban markets of the East.
Mark Twain-Wrote Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer both focused on the adventure and romance of
Mestizos-People of mixed race.
Plains Indians- Diverse group of tribes and language groups. Based on kinships, natural world. Rocky Mountain School- Grandiose western painting school.
Turner Thesis-Represented frontier point of view and heroism. Romanticized west.
Wounded Knife- Whites massacre Indians.
American Federation of Labor- The American Federation of Labor was a union of skilled
laborers formed by Samuel Gompers in 1866. The AFL quickly became one of the most
powerful unions in the United States. They achieved success by avoiding larger political
questions in favor of "bread and butter issues" such as shorter workdays and higher wages for
union members. It merged with its rival, the Confederation of Industrial Organizations in 1955 to
form AFL-CIO. ECONOMIC.
Andrew Carnegie- Andrew Carnegie set the standard for new steel mills. Carnegie was an
advocate of Social Darwinism and believed that unrestricted competition would eliminate weak
businesses. He also thought that a concentration of wealth was a natural result of capitalism, but
that it should be given back to society. ECONOMIC & CULTURAL.
Eugene V. Debs- As leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the
Pullman strike. After being jailed he emerged as avowed radical committed to lifelong struggle
against a system that enabled employers to enlist the powers of government to beat down
working people. He initially identified self as Populist but quickly changed to Socialist, founded
Socialist Party of American in 1901 that attracted ordinary Americans. He ran for President
numerous times, most notably in 1912 and 1920. POLITICAL.
Frederick Winslow Taylor- Pioneered scientific management by doing time-motion studies on
worker's operations. Determined the simplest, cheapest way of performing each job.
Gospel of Wealth-Essay written by Andrew Carnegie.
-Promoted Social Darwinism
-Wealth among the few was the natural and most efficient result of capitalism
-Great wealth brought responsibility
Haymarket Bombing-After the police fired into t...
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- Fall '16
- The Land