APUSH Vocab.pdf - Chapter 14 Abraham Lincoln One of the...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter​ ​14​ ​: Abraham​ ​Lincoln​​ ​-​ ​One​ ​of​ ​the​ ​most​ ​skillful​ ​politicians​ ​in​ ​Republican​ ​party.​ ​Lawyer.​ ​Tried​ ​to​ ​b gain​ ​national​ ​exposure​ ​by​ ​debates​ ​with​ ​Stephen​ ​A.​ ​Douglas.​ ​debates​ ​attracted​ ​much​ ​attention. attacks​ ​on​ ​slavery​ ​made​ ​him​ ​nationally​ ​known.​ ​felt​ ​slavery​ ​was​ ​morally​ ​wrong,​ ​but​ ​was​ ​not​ ​an abolitionist.​ ​He​ ​felt​ ​there​ ​was​ ​not​ ​an​ ​alternative​ ​to​ ​slavery​ ​and​ ​blacks​ ​were​ ​not​ ​prepared​ ​to​ ​live on​ ​equal​ ​terms​ ​as​ ​whites.​ ​Won​ ​presidency​ ​in​ ​November​ ​election Antietam​​ ​-​ ​battle​ ​in​ ​Maryland​ ​that​ ​ended​ ​Lee's​ ​first​ ​invasion​ ​of​ ​the​ ​North.​ ​Known​ ​for​ ​being​ ​the bloodiest​ ​day​ ​in​ ​the​ ​war,​ ​and​ ​led​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Emancipation​ ​Proclamation Appomattox​ ​court​ ​house​​ ​-​ ​in​ ​Virginia,​ ​was​ ​the​ ​place​ ​where​ ​the​ ​war​ ​ended​ ​and​ ​Lee​ ​surrendered to​ ​Grant Bull​ ​run​ ​-​ ​battle​ ​in​ ​which​ ​the​ ​Confederate​ ​army​ ​forced​ ​most​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Union​ ​army​ ​out​ ​of​ ​Virginia. General​ ​Lee​ ​defeated​ ​General​ ​Pope's​ ​Union​ ​forces. Clara​ ​Barton​​ ​-​ ​the​ ​first​ ​woman​ ​to​ ​go​ ​onto​ ​a​ ​battlefield​ ​in​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​to​ ​nurse​ ​the wounded​ ​soldiers:​ ​later,​ ​she​ ​set​ ​up​ ​the​ ​American​ ​Red​ ​Cross Emancipation​ ​proclamation​​ ​-​ ​issued​ ​by​ ​Abraham​ ​Lincoln​ ​after​ ​the​ ​Battle​ ​of​ ​Antietam.​ ​It declared​ ​that​ ​all​ ​slaves​ ​in​ ​the​ ​rebellious​ ​Confederate​ ​states​ ​would​ ​be​ ​free.​ ​caused​ ​an​ ​outcry​ ​to rise​ ​from​ ​the​ ​South​ ​who​ ​said​ ​that​ ​Lincoln​ ​was​ ​trying​ ​to​ ​stir​ ​up​ ​slave​ ​rebellion.​ ​The​ ​North​ ​now had​ ​a​ ​much​ ​stronger​ ​moral​ ​cause-​ ​It​ ​had​ ​to​ ​preserve​ ​the​ ​Union​ ​and​ ​free​ ​the​ ​slaves. Fort​ ​Sumter​​ ​-​ ​Built​ ​following​ ​the​ ​War​ ​of​ ​1812,​ ​and​ ​still​ ​not​ ​completely​ ​finished​ ​by​ ​1861,​ ​the fort​ ​is​ ​located​ ​in​ ​Charleston​ ​Harbor,​ ​SC.​ ​Fort​ ​Sumter​ ​is​ ​best​ ​remembered​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Battle​ ​of​ ​Fort Sumter,​ ​where​ ​the​ ​first​ ​shots​ ​of​ ​the​ ​civil​ ​war​ ​were​ ​fired.​ ​Once​ ​the​ ​Confederate​ ​States​ ​of​ ​America took​ ​control​ ​of​ ​Charleston​ ​Harbor,​ ​they​ ​soon​ ​aimed​ ​coastal​ ​guns​ ​on​ ​the​ ​fort,​ ​and​ ​fired.​ ​After​ ​the battle,​ ​4​ ​more​ ​states​ ​seceded,​ ​and​ ​their​ ​was​ ​more​ ​support​ ​for​ ​military​ ​action. George​ ​B.​ ​McClellan​ ​-​ ​given​ ​command​ ​of​ ​the​ ​army​ ​of​ ​the​ ​potomac,​ ​Fought​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Peninsula Campaign​ ​and​ ​the​ ​battle​ ​of​ ​Antietam. Gettysburg​​ ​-​ ​Turning​ ​point​ ​of​ ​the​ ​War​ ​that​ ​made​ ​it​ ​clear​ ​the​ ​North​ ​would​ ​win.​ ​50,000​ ​people died,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​South​ ​lost​ ​its​ ​chance​ ​to​ ​invade​ ​the​ ​North. Greenbacks​​ ​-​ ​Name​ ​for​ ​Union​ ​paper​ ​money​ ​not​ ​backed​ ​by​ ​gold​ ​or​ ​silver.​ ​Value​ ​would​ ​fluctuate depending​ ​on​ ​status​ ​of​ ​the​ ​war​ ​(plural) Homestead​ ​act​ ​-​ ​In​ ​1862​ ​congress​ ​passed​ ​the​ ​homestead​ ​act​ ​offering​ ​160​ ​acres​ ​of​ ​free​ ​land​ ​to any​ ​citizen​ ​or​ ​intended​ ​citizen​ ​who​ ​was​ ​head​ ​of​ ​the​ ​household. Jefferson​ ​Davis​ ​-​ ​Jefferson​ ​Davis​ ​was​ ​the​ ​President​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Southern​ ​Confederate​ ​States​ ​from 1860​ ​to​ ​1865​ ​after​ ​their​ ​secession​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Union.​ ​During​ ​this​ ​time,​ ​Davis​ ​struggled​ ​to​ ​form​ ​a solid​ ​government​ ​for​ ​the​ ​states​ ​to​ ​be​ ​governed​ ​by.​ ​Jefferson​ ​Davis​ ​worked​ ​hard​ ​with​ ​solidating the​ ​civil​ ​government​ ​and​ ​carrying​ ​out​ ​military​ ​operations.​ ​POLITICAL. March​ ​to​ ​the​ ​sea​​ ​-​ ​*November--December​ ​Led​ ​by​ ​General​ ​William​ ​T.​ ​Sherman,​ ​60,000 northern​ ​troops​ ​swarmed​ ​over​ ​the​ ​Georgia​ ​countryside​ ​south​ ​of​ ​Atlanta,​ ​consuming​ ​and/or destroying​ ​everything​ ​in​ ​their​ ​path;​ ​operations​ ​concluded​ ​at​ ​Savannah,​ ​Georgia,​ ​on​ ​the​ ​Atlantic coast;​ ​Union​ ​victory. Morrill​ ​land​ ​grant​ ​act​​ ​-​ ​1862​ ​law​ ​in​ ​which​ ​the​ ​federal​ ​government​ ​distributed​ ​millions​ ​of​ ​acres of​ ​western​ ​lands​ ​to​ ​the​ ​state​ ​governments​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​fund​ ​state​ ​agricultural​ ​colleges Robert​ ​e​ ​lee​ ​-​ ​The​ ​General​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Confederate​ ​troops;​ ​he​ ​was​ ​prosperous​ ​in​ ​many​ ​battles;​ ​was defeated​ ​at​ ​Antietam​ ​in​ ​1862​ ​when​ ​he​ ​retreated​ ​across​ ​the​ ​Potomac;​ ​this​ ​halt​ ​of​ ​Lee's​ ​troops justified​ ​Abraham​ ​Lincoln's​ ​Emancipation​ ​Proclamation;​ ​he​ ​was​ ​defeated​ ​at​ ​Gettysburg​ ​by General​ ​Mead's​ ​Union​ ​troops;​ ​surrendered​ ​to​ ​General​ ​Grant​ ​at​ ​Appomattox​ ​Court​ ​House​ ​on April​ ​9,​ ​1865. Shiloh​​ ​-​ ​the​ ​second​ ​great​ ​battle​ ​of​ ​the​ ​American​ ​Civil​ ​War​ ​(1862) Thomas​ ​“Stonewall”​ ​Jackson​ ​-​ ​Lee's​ ​chief​ ​lieutenant,​ ​killed​ ​by​ ​own​ ​men​ ​at​ ​Chancellorsville Ulysses​ ​s.​ ​Grant​ ​-​ ​A​ ​Northern​ ​general​ ​who​ ​helped​ ​gain​ ​victory​ ​for​ ​the​ ​union.​ ​His​ ​first​ ​successful victories​ ​came​ ​at​ ​Fort​ ​Henry​ ​and​ ​Fort​ ​Donelson​ ​on​ ​the​ ​Tennessee​ ​and​ ​Cumberland​ ​rivers​ ​in February​ ​1862.​ ​These​ ​victories​ ​opened​ ​a​ ​door​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Union​ ​to​ ​the​ ​rest​ ​of​ ​the​ ​south.​ ​Eventually Grant​ ​was​ ​given​ ​command​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Union​ ​forces​ ​attacking​ ​Vicksburg.​ ​This​ ​would​ ​be​ ​his​ ​greatest victory​ ​of​ ​the​ ​war.​ ​Grant​ ​was​ ​made​ ​General-in-Chief​ ​after​ ​several​ ​more​ ​impressive​ ​victories​ near Chattanooga.​ ​Grant's​ ​final​ ​victory​ ​came​ ​when​ ​he​ ​defeated​ ​General​ ​Robert​ ​E. U.S.​ ​Sanitary​ ​Commission​​ ​-​ ​Founded​ ​with​ ​the​ ​help​ ​of​ ​Elizabeth​ ​Blackwell,​ ​the​ ​government agency​ ​trained​ ​nurses,​ ​collected​ ​medical​ ​supplies​ ​and​ ​equipped​ ​hospitals​ ​in​ ​an​ ​effort​ ​to​ ​help​ ​the Union​ ​Army.​ ​The​ ​commission​ ​helped​ ​professionalize​ ​nursing​ ​and​ ​gave​ ​many​ ​women​ ​the confidence​ ​and​ ​organizational​ ​skills​ ​to​ ​propel​ ​the​ ​women's​ ​movement​ ​in​ ​the​ ​postwar​ ​years. William​ ​tecumseh​ ​sherman​​ ​-​ ​He​ ​fought​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Vicksburg​ ​and​ ​Chattanooga​ ​campaigns​ ​and​ ​he undertook​ ​the​ ​Atlanta​ ​Campaign.​ ​He​ ​burned​ ​Atlanta​ ​and​ ​set​ ​off,​ ​with​ ​a​ ​force​ ​of​ ​60,000,​ ​on​ ​his famous​ ​march​ ​to​ ​the​ ​sea,​ ​devastating​ ​the​ ​country.​ ​After​ ​capturing​ ​Savannah,​ ​he​ ​turned​ ​north through​ ​S.​ ​Carolina,​ ​and​ ​received​ ​the​ ​surrender​ ​of​ ​General​ ​Johnston Chapter​ ​15​ ​: Andrew​ ​Johnson​ ​-​ ​Lincoln's​ ​vice​ ​president;​ ​&​ ​President​ ​after​ ​the​ ​assassination.​ ​He​ ​was​ ​a Jacksonian​ ​Democrat;​ ​from​ ​Tennessee​ ​but​ ​after​ ​the​ ​secession​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Union​ ​he​ ​stayed​ ​in​ ​the Senate​ ​because​ ​his​ ​loyalty​ ​lay​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Union;​ ​a​ ​month​ ​after​ ​Lincoln's​ ​death​ ​he​ ​began​ ​his Reconstruction​ ​vision​ ​which​ ​offered​ ​amnesty​ ​to​ ​Southerners​ ​who​ ​promised​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​their allegiance​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Constitution,​ ​however​ ​the​ ​Southern​ ​elite​ ​were​ ​exempt​ ​from​ ​this​ ​because Johnson​ ​blamed​ ​them​ ​for​ ​secession Atlanta​ ​Compromise​ ​-​ ​A​ ​speech​ ​made​ ​by​ ​Washington​ ​in​ ​Atlanta​ ​that​ ​outlined​ ​the​ ​philosophy that​ ​blacks​ ​should​ ​focus​ ​on​ ​economic​ ​gains,​ ​go​ ​to​ ​school,​ ​learn​ ​skills,​ ​and​ ​work​ ​their​ ​way​ ​up​ ​the ladder​ ​and​ ​that​ ​Southern​ ​whites​ ​should​ ​help​ ​out​ ​to​ ​create​ ​an​ ​unresentful​ ​people. Black​ ​Codes​ ​-​ ​Laws​ ​denying​ ​most​ ​legal​ ​rights​ ​to​ ​newly​ ​freed​ ​slaves;​ ​passed​ ​by​ ​southern​ ​states following​ ​the​ ​Civil​ ​War Booker​ ​T.​ ​Washington​ ​-​ ​A​ ​former​ ​slave.​ ​Encouraged​ ​blacks​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​to​ ​themselves​ ​and​ ​focus​ ​on the​ ​daily​ ​tasks​ ​of​ ​survival,​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​leading​ ​a​ ​grand​ ​uprising.​ ​Believed​ ​that​ ​building​ ​a​ ​strong economic​ ​base​ ​was​ ​more​ ​critical​ ​at​ ​that​ ​time​ ​than​ ​planning​ ​an​ ​uprising​ ​or​ ​fighting​ ​for​ ​equal rights.​ ​Washington​ ​also​ ​stated​ ​in​ ​his​ ​famous​ ​"Atlanta​ ​Compromise"​ ​speech​ ​in​ ​1895​ ​that​ ​blacks had​ ​to​ ​accept​ ​segregation​ ​in​ ​the​ ​short​ ​term​ ​as​ ​they​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​economic​ ​gain​ ​to​ ​achieve​ ​political equality​ ​in​ ​the​ ​future.​ ​Served​ ​as ​important​ ​role​ ​models​ ​for​ ​later​ ​leaders​ ​of​ ​the​ ​civil​ ​rights movement. Carpetbaggers​ ​-​ ​A​ ​derogatory​ ​term​ ​applied​ ​to​ ​Northerners​ ​who​ ​migrated​ ​south​ ​during​ ​the Reconstruction​ ​to​ ​take​ ​advantage​ ​of​ ​opportunities​ ​to​ ​advance​ ​their​ ​own​ ​fortunes​ ​by​ ​buying​ ​up land​ ​from​ ​desperate​ ​Southerners​ ​and​ ​by​ ​manipulating​ ​new​ ​black​ ​voters​ ​to​ ​obtain​ ​lucrative government​ ​contracts. Charles​ ​Sumner​ ​-​ ​aggressive​ ​abolitionist​ ​who​ ​was​ ​physically​ ​assaulted​ ​by​ ​Preston​ ​Brooks​ ​after making​ ​a​ ​strong​ ​antislavery​ ​speech.​ ​He​ ​was​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​leaders​ ​of​ ​the​ ​radical​ ​Republicans' Reconstruction​ ​program​ ​and​ ​was​ ​also​ ​an​ ​active​ ​participant​ ​in​ ​the​ ​impeachment​ ​of​ ​Andrew Johnson. Compromise​ ​of​ ​1877​ ​-​ ​Unwritten​ ​deal​ ​that​ ​settled​ ​the​ ​1876​ ​presidential​ ​election​ ​contest​ ​between Rutherford​ ​Hayes​ ​(Rep)​ ​and​ ​Samuel​ ​Tilden​ ​(Dem.)​ ​Hayes​ ​was​ ​awarded​ ​the​ ​presidency​ ​in exchange​ ​for​ ​the​ ​permanent​ ​removal​ ​of​ ​federal​ ​troops​ ​from​ ​the​ ​South. Crop-​ ​Lien​ ​System​ ​-​ ​System​ ​that​ ​allowed​ ​farmers​ ​to​ ​get​ ​more​ ​credit.​ ​They​ ​used​ ​harvested​ ​crops to​ ​pay​ ​back​ ​their​ ​loans. Enforcement​ ​Acts​ ​-​ ​Prohibited​ ​radical​ ​anti-black​ ​groups​ ​and​ ​protected​ ​the​ ​voting​ ​rights​ ​of African​ ​Americans Fourteenth​ ​Amendment​ ​-​ ​amendment​ ​to​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​Constitution,​ ​ratified​ ​in​ ​1868,​ ​defining national​ ​citizenship​ ​and​ ​forbidding​ ​the​ ​states​ ​to​ ​restrict​ ​the​ ​basic​ ​rights​ ​of​ ​citizens​ ​or​ ​other persons. Freedmen’s​ ​Bureau​ ​-​ ​An​ ​army​ ​agency,​ ​headed​ ​by​ ​George​ ​Howard,​ ​distributed​ ​food,​ ​established schools​ ​and​ ​give​ ​blacks​ ​their​ ​own​ ​land. Hamilton​ ​Fish​ ​-​ ​member​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Grant​ ​administration,​ ​he​ ​was​ ​an​ ​able​ ​diplomat​ ​who​ ​peacefully settled​ ​conflicts​ ​with​ ​Great​ ​Britain​ ​through​ ​the​ ​Treaty​ ​of​ ​Washington,​ ​in​ ​which​ ​Canada​ ​gave​ ​the U.S.​ ​permanent​ ​fishing​ ​rights​ ​to​ ​the​ ​St.​ ​Lawrence​ ​River. Ida​ ​B.​ ​Wells​ ​-​ ​the​ ​lynching​ ​of​ ​blacks​ ​outraged​ ​her,​ ​an​ ​african​ ​american​ ​journalist.​ ​in​ ​her newspaper,​ ​free​ ​speech,​ ​wells​ ​urged​ ​african​ ​americans​ ​to​ ​protest​ ​the​ ​lynchings.​ ​she​ ​called​ ​for​ ​a boycott​ ​of​ ​segregated​ ​streetcars​ ​and​ ​white​ ​owned​ ​stores.​ ​she​ ​spoke​ ​out​ ​despite​ ​threats​ ​to​ ​her​ ​life. Jim​ ​Crow​ ​Laws​ ​-​ ​The​ ​"separate​ ​but​ ​equal"​ ​segregation​ ​laws​ ​state​ ​and​ ​local​ ​laws​ ​enacted​ ​in​ ​the Southern​ ​and​ ​border​ ​states​ ​of​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States​ ​and​ ​enforced​ ​between​ ​1876​ ​and​ ​1965 Ku​ ​Klux​ ​Klan-​ ​founded​ ​in​ ​the​ ​1860s​ ​in​ ​the​ ​south;​ ​meant​ ​to​ ​control​ ​newly​ ​freed​ ​slaves​ ​through threats​ ​and​ ​violence;​ ​other​ ​targets:​ ​Catholics,​ ​Jews,​ ​immigrants​ ​and​ ​others​ ​thought​ ​to​ ​be un-American Panic​ ​of​ ​1873​ ​-​ ​Four​ ​year​ ​economic​ ​depression​ ​caused​ ​by​ ​over​ ​speculation​ ​on​ ​railroads​ ​and western​ ​lands,​ ​and​ ​worsened​ ​by​ ​Grant's​ ​poor​ ​fiscal​ ​response​ ​(refusing​ ​to​ ​coin​ ​silver Plessy​ ​v​ ​Ferguson​ ​-​ ​a​ ​1896​ ​Supreme​ ​Court​ ​decision​ ​which​ ​legalized​ ​state​ ​ordered​ ​segregation​ ​so long​ ​as​ ​the​ ​facilities​ ​for​ ​blacks​ ​and​ ​whites​ ​were​ ​equal Radical​ ​Republicans​ ​-​ ​Political​ ​party​ ​that​ ​favored​ ​harsh​ ​punishment​ ​of​ ​Southern​ ​states​ ​after civil​ ​war Redeemers​ ​-​ ​Largely​ ​former​ ​slave​ ​owners​ ​who​ ​were​ ​the​ ​bitterest​ ​opponents​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Republican program​ ​in​ ​the​ ​South.​ ​Staged​ ​a​ ​major​ ​counterrevolution​ ​to​ ​"redeem"​ ​the​ ​south​ ​by​ ​taking​ ​back southern​ ​state​ ​governments.​ ​Their​ ​foundation​ ​rested​ ​on​ ​the​ ​idea​ ​of​ ​racism​ ​and​ ​white​ ​supremacy. Redeemer​ ​governments​ ​waged​ ​and​ ​agressive​ ​assault​ ​on​ ​African​ ​Americans. Scalawags​ ​-​ ​A​ ​derogatory​ ​term​ ​for​ ​Southerners​ ​who​ ​were​ ​working​ ​with​ ​the​ ​North​ ​to​ ​buy​ ​up​ ​land from​ ​desperate​ ​Southerners.​ ​Former​ ​Whigs​ ​usually Sharecropping​ ​-​ ​When​ ​someone​ ​works​ ​their​ ​own​ ​plots​ ​of​ ​land​ ​and​ ​pays​ ​their​ ​landlord​ ​either​ ​a fixed​ ​rent​ ​or​ ​shore​ ​of​ ​their​ ​crop Thaddeus​ ​Stevens​ ​-​ ​A​ ​radical​ ​Republican​ ​who​ ​believed​ ​in​ ​harsh​ ​punishments​ ​for​ ​the​ ​South. Leader​ ​of​ ​the​ ​radical​ ​Republicans​ ​in​ ​Congress.​ ​(PA) Wade-Davis​ ​Bill​ ​-​ ​an​ ​1864​ ​plan​ ​for​ ​Reconstruction​ ​that​ ​denied​ ​the​ ​right​ ​to​ ​vote​ ​or​ ​hold​ ​office for​ ​anyone​ ​who​ ​had​ ​fought​ ​for​ ​the​ ​Confederacy...Lincoln​ ​refused​ ​to​ ​sign​ ​this​ ​bill​ ​thinking​ ​it​ ​was too​ ​harsh. William​ ​Seward​ ​-​ ​Secretary​ ​of​ ​State​ ​who​ ​was​ ​shot​ ​the​ ​night​ ​before​ ​Lincoln Chapter​ ​16 Californios-​a​ ​term​ ​used​ ​to​ ​identify​ ​a​ ​Californian​ ​of​ ​Hispanic;​ ​most​ ​were​ ​descendants​ ​of​ ​the Spanish​ ​and​ ​Mexican​ ​conquerors​ ​who​ ​had​ ​once​ ​ruled​ ​California.​ ​Much​ ​of​ ​Californio​ ​society lived​ ​at​ ​or​ ​near​ ​the​ ​many​ ​missions;​ ​but​ ​they​ ​were​ ​overthrown​ ​when​ ​the​ ​civil​ ​war​ ​broke​ ​out​ ​and by​ ​1870​ ​the​ ​Californios'​ ​brief​ ​ascendency​ ​had​ ​utterly​ ​vanished. Chief​ ​Joseph-​Leader​ ​of​ ​Nez​ ​Perce.​ ​Fled​ ​with​ ​his​ ​tribe​ ​to​ ​Canada​ ​instead​ ​of​ ​reservations. However,​ ​US​ ​troops​ ​came​ ​and​ ​fought​ ​and​ ​brought​ ​them​ ​back​ ​down​ ​to​ ​reservations Chinese​ ​Exclusion​ ​Act-​ ​1882,​ ​halted​ ​Chinese​ ​immigration​ ​to​ ​America;​ ​Started​ ​when​ ​people​ ​of the​ ​West​ ​Coast​ ​attributed​ ​declining​ ​wages​ ​and​ ​economic​ ​troubles​ ​to​ ​the​ ​hated​ ​Chinese​ ​workers; In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​appease​ ​them​ ​Congress​ ​passed​ ​the​ ​Chinese​ ​Exclusion​ ​Act Chisholm​ ​Trail-​The​ ​Chisholm​ ​Trail​ ​was​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​first,​ ​busiest,​ ​and​ ​most​ ​famous​ ​cattle​ ​trails from​ ​the​ ​open​ ​range​ ​of​ ​south​ ​Texas​ ​to​ ​the​ ​railhead​ ​in​ ​Abilene,​ ​Kansas. “Concentration”​ ​policy​-​adopted​ ​by​ ​the​ ​U.S.​ ​government​ ​to​ ​deal​ ​with​ ​Native​ ​Americans​ ​in​ ​the late​ ​nineteenth​ ​century.​ ​Indians​ ​were​ ​persuaded​ ​to​ ​accept​ ​defined​ ​limits​ ​to​ ​their​ ​hunting​ ​ground. This​ ​enabled​ ​the​ ​government​ ​to​ ​negotiate​ ​with​ ​each​ ​tribe​ ​separately—a​ ​strategy​ ​of​ ​divide​ ​and conquer. Coolies-​​ ​Indentured​ ​servants​ ​whose​ ​condition​ ​was​ ​close​ ​to​ ​slavery.​ ​When​ ​many​ ​Chinese​ ​moved to​ ​Hawaii,​ ​Australia,​ ​Latin​ ​America,​ ​South​ ​Africa,​ ​and​ ​even​ ​the​ ​Caribbean,​ ​some​ ​went​ ​as​ ​these. Dawes​ ​Severalty​ ​Act-​ ​This​ ​provided​ ​for​ ​the​ ​gradual​ ​elimination​ ​of​ ​most​ ​tribal​ ​ownership​ ​of​ ​land and​ ​the​ ​allotment​ ​of​ ​tracts​ ​to​ ​individual​ ​owners:​ ​160​ ​acres​ ​to​ ​the​ ​head​ ​of​ ​a​ ​family,​ ​80​ ​acres​ ​to​ ​a single​ ​adult​ ​or​ ​orphan,​ ​40​ ​acres​ ​to​ ​each​ ​dependent​ ​child.​ ​Adult​ ​owners​ ​were​ ​given​ ​United​ ​States citizenship,​ ​but​ ​unlike​ ​other​ ​citizens,​ ​they​ ​could​ ​not​ ​gain​ ​full​ ​title​ ​to​ ​their​ ​property​ ​for twenty-five​ ​years​ ​(supposedly​ ​to​ ​prevent​ ​them​ ​from​ ​selling​ ​the​ ​land​ ​to​ ​speculators).​ ​Created​ ​in 1887. Fredrick​ ​Jackson​ ​Turner-​ ​American​ ​historian​ ​who​ ​said​ ​that​ ​humanity​ ​would​ ​continue​ ​to progress​ ​as​ ​long​ ​as​ ​there​ ​was​ ​new​ ​land​ ​to​ ​move​ ​into.​ ​The​ ​frontier​ ​provided​ ​a​ ​place​ ​for​ ​homeless and​ ​solved​ ​social​ ​problems. Fredric​ ​Remington-​One​ ​of​ ​the​ ​most​ ​beloved​ ​and​ ​successful​ ​artists​ ​of​ ​the​ ​nineteenth​ ​century.​ ​A painter​ ​and​ ​sculptor​ ​whose​ ​works​ ​came​ ​to​ ​represent​ ​the​ ​romance​ ​of​ ​the​ ​West.​ ​He​ ​portrayed​ ​the cowboy​ ​as​ ​a​ ​natural​ ​aristocrat,​ ​much​ ​like​ ​Wister's​ ​The​ ​Virginian,​ ​living​ ​in​ ​a​ ​natural​ ​world​ ​in which​ ​all​ ​the​ ​normal​ ​supporting​ ​structures​ ​of​ ​"civilization"​ ​were​ ​missing. Genizaros-​​ ​Indians​ ​without​ ​tribes​ ​and​ ​at​ ​the​ ​bottom.​ ​Part​ ​of​ ​Spanish​ ​society. George​ ​A.​ ​Custer-​General​ ​at​ ​Little​ ​Bighorn. Geronimo-​​ ​Kept​ ​battling​ ​for​ ​Indian​ ​rights​ ​and​ ​didn't​ ​want​ ​to​ ​assimilate. Homestead​ ​Act-​Permitted​ ​settlers​ ​to​ ​buy​ ​plots​ ​of​ ​160​ ​acres​ ​for​ ​a​ ​small​ ​fee​ ​if​ ​they​ ​occupied​ ​the land​ ​they​ ​purchased​ ​for​ ​5​ ​years​ ​and​ ​improved​ ​it.​ ​Not​ ​enough​ ​to​ ​sustain​ ​a​ ​family​ ​farm. Little​ ​Bighorn-​ ​Battle​ ​where​ ​mass​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​Indians​ ​gathered​ ​to​ ​battle​ ​assimilation. Long​ ​Drive-​ ​Trails​ ​that​ ​linked​ ​isolated​ ​cattle​ ​breeders​ ​of​ ​Texas​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Urban​ ​markets​ ​of​ ​the​ ​East. Mark​ ​Twain​-​Wrote​ ​Huck​ ​Finn​ ​and​ ​Tom​ ​Sawyer​ ​both​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​the​ ​adventure​ ​and​ ​romance​ ​of the​ ​West. Mestizos-​People​ ​of​ ​mixed​ ​race. Plains​ ​Indians-​ ​Diverse​ ​group​ ​of​ ​tribes​ ​and​ ​language​ ​groups.​ ​Based​ ​on​ ​kinships,​ ​natural​ ​world. Rocky​ ​Mountain​ ​School-​ ​Grandiose​ ​western​ ​painting​ ​school. Turner​ ​Thesis-​Represented​ ​frontier​ ​point​ ​of​ ​view​ ​and​ ​heroism.​ ​Romanticized​ ​west. Wounded​ ​Knife-​ ​Whites​ ​massacre​ ​Indians. Chapter​ ​17 American​ ​Federation​ ​of​ ​Labor-​​ ​The​ ​American​ ​Federation​ ​of​ ​Labor​ ​was​ ​a​ ​union​ ​of​ ​skilled laborers​ ​formed​ ​by​ ​Samuel​ ​Gompers​ ​in​ ​1866.​ ​The​ ​AFL​ ​quickly​ ​became​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​most powerful​ ​unions​ ​in​ ​the​ ​United​ ​States.​ ​They​ ​achieved​ ​success​ ​by​ ​avoiding​ ​larger​ ​political questions​ ​in​ ​favor​ ​of​ ​"bread​ ​and​ ​butter​ ​issues"​ ​such​ ​as​ ​shorter​ ​workdays​ ​and​ ​higher​ ​wages​ ​for union​ ​members.​ ​It​ ​merged​ ​with​ ​its​ ​rival,​ ​the​ ​Confederation​ ​of​ ​Industrial​ ​Organizations​ ​in​ ​1955​ ​to form​ ​AFL-CIO.​ ​ECONOMIC. Andrew​ ​Carnegie-​ ​Andrew​ ​Carnegie​ ​set​ ​the​ ​standard​ ​for​ ​new​ ​steel​ ​mills.​ ​Carnegie​ ​was​ ​an advocate​ ​of​ ​Social​ ​Darwinism​ ​and​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​unrestricted​ ​competition​ ​would​ ​eliminate​ ​weak businesses.​ ​He​ ​also​ ​thought​ ​that​ ​a​ ​concentration​ ​of​ ​wealth​ ​was​ ​a​ ​natural​ ​result​ ​of​ ​capitalism,​ ​but that​ ​it​ ​should​ ​be​ ​given​ ​back​ ​to​ ​society.​ ​ECONOMIC​ ​&​ ​CULTURAL. Eugene​ ​V.​ ​Debs-​​ ​As​ ​leader​ ​of​ ​the​ ​American​ ​Railway​ ​Union,​ ​he​ ​voted​ ​to​ ​aid​ ​workers​ ​in​ ​the Pullman​ ​strike.​ ​After​ ​being​ ​jailed​ ​he​ ​emerged​ ​as​ ​avowed​ ​radical​ ​committed​ ​to​ ​lifelong​ ​struggle against​ ​a​ ​system​ ​that​ ​enabled​ ​employers​ ​to​ ​enlist​ ​the​ ​powers​ ​of​ ​government​ ​to​ ​beat​ ​down working​ ​people.​ ​He​ ​initially​ ​identified​ ​self​ ​as​ ​Populist​ ​but​ ​quickly​ ​changed​ ​to​ ​Socialist,​ ​founded Socialist​ ​Party​ ​of​ ​American​ ​in​ ​1901​ ​that​ ​attracted​ ​ordinary​ ​Americans.​ ​He​ ​ran​ ​for​ ​President numerous​ ​times,​ ​most​ ​notably​ ​in​ ​1912​ ​and​ ​1920.​ ​POLITICAL. Frederick​ ​Winslow​ ​Taylor-​ ​Pioneered​ ​scientific​ ​management​ ​by​ ​doing​ ​time-motion​ ​studies​ ​on worker's​ ​operations.​ ​Determined​ ​the​ ​simplest,​ ​cheapest​ ​way​ ​of​ ​performing​ ​each​ ​job. Gospel​ ​of​ ​Wealth-​Essay​ ​written​ ​by​ ​Andrew​ ​Carnegie. -Promoted​ ​Social​ ​Darwinism -Wealth​ ​among​ ​the​ ​few​ ​was​ ​the​ ​natural​ ​and​ ​most​ ​efficient​ ​result​ ​of​ ​capitalism -Great​ ​wealth​ ​brought​ ​responsibility Haymarket​ ​Bombing​-After​ ​the​ ​police​ ​fired​ ​into​ ​t...
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