PreReading.pdf - Before Reading Strategies Use or modify...

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Unformatted text preview: Before Reading Strategies Use or modify these tips with your students before starting to read a text. These strategies should work to activate students' prior knowledge and work towards creating overall meaning of the text. These strategies are important because they aid students in providing a schema of what they . are reading—when used well, these strategies will help prevent students from getting bogged dawn with difficult words, while also giving them the tools to understand more linguistically-difficult language. Predicting from words, titles, or first sentence Look at the title or isolate a significant word or sentence from the text. Ask students to connect their knowledge to this word or group of words and have them make predictions about the topic, the type of text (nonfiction, biography, narrative, literature, informational, etc.). Ask questions to guide students towards significant concepts about the text. Predicting from illustrations/Picture walks Choose one or two illustrations from the text (for older students or for non— literature- based classes, “illustratiOns” could include maps, diagrams, or charts). if a text has no “illustrations," provide a relevant picture for students. Have them work in pairs or groups to predict what the text will entail. Sequencing illustrations Allow students to look at a series of illustrations from the text and put them into a possible sequential order that may make sense. You can extend this by having students connect this activity to key vocabulary. story Impressions Generate a list of various words that are significant within the text that is about to be read. These words should reveal some significant aspects or themes of the upcoming text. Students (or pairs of students) use these words to create a short story based upon the impressions that they get from these particular words. Before reading the text, students (or groups) should share their short stories and the class can discuss important concepts. After reading, you can go back and compare/contrast the two. Storytelling ([1 or L2) Using illustrations from the text, relevant photos, realia, or your own simplified drawings, retell the story in an easier, more general way to build students' background with the text. Reading/telling the story in the students' L] can also be very effective and can be a strong way to get families and communities outside the school involved. KWL Take a central concept from the text and have students talk about what they already know (K) about the topic. This can take a variety of forms from a general discussion to a brainstorm chart using a graphic organizer. After the class has compiled a list of what students already know, have students brainstorm a list of things that they want (W) to learn about the topic. This list can later be used in During or After Reading strategies when students talk about what they have learned (L) about the topic. Brainstorm Bombs Come up with a list of several key themes or concepts from the text and write these on the tops of enough pieces of paper so that all students get a piece. (Repetition of themes/concepts is ok) give students apiece of paper and have them look at the topic and write all they know about the topic. After one minute, have them crumple the paper into paper ”bombs” and throw it somewhere in the room. Then, have students pick up another “bomb" and continue writing. Repeat for any given time and then process students' writing as a class. This is a good way for teachers to assess the background knowledge that the class may have. Anticipation guides Preview the text and extract important themes and issues that students will face as they read. Turn these issues into statements and have students respond (in writing, orally, or in a physical activity) to these statements based upon whether they agree or disagree. You can have students either pick one or the other, or have them place themselves on a continuum. Students should be prepared to justify their answers. You can follow up this activity with a discussion about these themes. Pre-teaching vocabulary (see Calderon, chapter 3) “Probable Passage" Before reading, choose 10-1 5 words that reflect the characters, problems, and outcomes of the story. Divide students into groups and give them a chart with categories of “characters," “problems," “outcomes," and “unknown words." Students need to work together to place the iO~i 5 words into these categories. Once their words are organized, students can work together to create a “probable passage" as to what the text may be about. This is much like a prediction, but they need to incorporate some or all of the original iO—i 5 words. Reading strategies are adapted from: Gibbons, Pauline. Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2002. Learning Point Adolescent Literacy instruction: ...
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