CHEM
Intro to Collision Theory and Factors Affecting Rates of Reactions (2).pdf

Intro to Collision Theory and Factors Affecting Rates of Reactions (2).pdf

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Unformatted text preview: Collision Theory For a reaction to occur between particles (atoms, molecules, or ions). the collision between the particles must be "effective". A collision is effective when: 1. reactant particles are in the correct orientation (collision geometry) 2' they meet withsufficient energy * therefore not all collisions produce new products (i .e. cause a reaction) Criteria 1: Orientation of Reac’ran’rs 0.090 =>Nf< QC :; Jbvxn O The angle (St direction in which reac’ran’rs mee’r determines if The collision is effec’rive mllis iiii mllis iiii Criteria 2: Activation Ener'gy Transition 5mm state during reaction when bonds are breaking and forming after particles meet ¥Activated complex- a the intermediate chemical specimen after bonds form but before they 0.. break Lu P Kxn Mass The activation energy- energy needed to form and break bonds for a reaction to pass the transition state owl-ides do ho‘HnatVe, _6’\o~\‘f§ln EEK-FL mtg} ‘l‘h-e. HQ! '5 t0\ rm will hot occur ++lnt collision \Nil‘ \oe the-FFE'd-n V: Potential Energy Diagram of 0 Reaction Maxwell-Boszmann DisTribuTion MosT parTicles do noT meeT The energy requiremenTs for The collision To be effecTive and for a reacTion To occur #of particles The number of parTicles ThaT have equal To or more Then enough kineTic energy To meeT The energy requiremenTs of The reacTion Factors That affecT rates of reaction: 1. Temperature :9 T'} ‘E ”a? % 1st“- :15 E E E“ Em 2. Concentration As the concentration increases the.prot2ability that the particles will meet with enough energy at the right orientation also increases. Therefore, the number of effective co||isions increase. 3. Nature of Reactants Nature of Bonds Hydrated free ions (in solution have no bonds to break therefore rate of the reaction increases) Strength of Bonds Strong bonds (ex.cova|ent bonds) need more energy to be broken so rate of reaction decreases Number- of Bonds Greater number of bonds need more energy to be broken so rate of reaction increases 4. Surface Area As the surface area increases, reactant particles' exposure to one another increases, therefore the probability of effective collisions increases. 5. Catalysts They are not consumed in the reaction The catalyst reduces activation energy by producing a different pathway for the reaction to progress (different number of steps and activated complexes) that requires less energy. No Catalyst Catalyst 6a» m 1’ 5,0 9* 17 the 1? Km “”3““ Mb “’03 (e5) ...
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