Chapter 4 Notes.pdf - Chapter 4 Notes Concepts of Disease I...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 4 Notes Concepts of Disease I. Introduction A. Pathology is the study of disease 1. Concerns itself with abnormal structural and physiologic changes of organs and organ systems B. Disease is any structural or physiological change that disrupts homeostasis II. Cell Injury and Death A. When a cell is injured by toxins, trauma, infection, cancer, or other agents, it may adapt or die B. Atropy 1. Reduction in the size of an organ 2. Physiological or pathological 3. Image 4-1 → C. Hypertrophy 1. Increase in the size of an organ 2. Physiological or pathological 3. Image 4-2 → D. Hyperplasia 1. Increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue 2. Physiological or pathological 3. Image 4-3 → E. Metaplasia 1. Change of one adult cell type to another 2. Image 4-4 → F. Dysplasia 1. Disordered growth and maturation of cells 2. Dysplastic cells do not look like normal cells 3. Image 4-5 → G. Intracellular storage of substances 1. Normal or abnormal and the substances stored may be harmful or harmless
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
H. Cell death can be described as apoptosis or necrosis 1. Apoptosis is called programmed death or suicide, and this is a normal cell death 2. Necrosis is a pathological cell death, which occurs when cells suffer injury or insult and are not able to adapt and so die a) Necrosis → Image 4-6 → III. Applying Your Knowledge A. Hyperplasia → Increase in cell number B. Apoptosis → Programmed cell death C. Hypertrophy → Increase in organ size D. Dysplasia → Disordered cell growth E. Atrophy → reduction in organ size IV. Three lines of Defense A. Natural barriers B. Non-specific response C. Specific response V. Inflammation A. A vascular response of tissue to an injury, infection, allergy, or autoimmune disease B. Protective response to destroy or limit both the injurious agent and the amount of damaged tissue C. Acute inflammation 1. Lasts from 1-2 days 2. Redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function D. Chronic inflammation 1. Lasts days, weeks, even months 2. Refer to Image → VI. Outcomes of Injury A. Repair healing (healing) 1. Replacement of the damaged tissue with connective tissue cells, fibers and blood vessels, called granulation tissue 2. Granulation tissue will be replaced with functional cells B. Regeneration (repair) 1. Renewal of damaged tissue C. Fibrosis 1. Production of connective tissue at the site of injury 2. Scarring is a type of fibrosis and can occur if the injury is extensive or if healing is not complete
Image of page 2
3. Excessive scar formations are called keloids → VII. Applying your knowledge A. Following an injury, which outcome is considered a renewal of damaged tissue? 1. Regeneration B. List the signs of inflammations 1. Redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function VIII. Immunopathology A. Immunology → is the study of the immune system of the body. It includes knowledge of our white blood cells and the pathogens which trigger (hopefully) as response from our immune system to defeat the attack.
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern