Chapter 7 Notes.pdf - Chapter 7 Notes The Integumentary...

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Chapter 7 Notes The Integumentary System I. Integumentary System Intro A. Skin B. Accessory organs 1. Hair follicles 2. Arrector pili muscles 3. Nails 4. Sweat and oil glands II. Integumentary System Functions A. Protection B. Body temperature regulation C. Cutaneous sensation D. Metabolic functions E. Blood reservoir F. Excretion III. Protection A. Physical Barrier 1. Bacteria 2. Viruses B. Some chemicals C. Mechanical Trauma D. Protects underlying structures from 1. Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation 2. Dehydration E. What would you expect to find at the point of “first contact” with the dangers of the outside world 1. A very effective barrier 2. Waterproof of lipid layers to repel water 3. Immune activity of WBC’s to intercept invaders 4. Dendritic cells (langerhan cells) help to prepare the immune responses IV. Body Temperature Regulation A. If too hot 1. Dermal Blood vessels dilate 2. Vessels carry more blood to surface so heat can escape B. If too cold 1. Dermal blood vessels constrict 2. Prevents a heat from escaping V. Other Functions A. Vitamin D production
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1. Required for calcium absorption B. Sensory perception 1. Touch, pain, pressure, and temperature C. Excretion 1. Some wastes lost through perspiration VI. Applying Your Knowledge A. What are the functions of the integumentary system? 1. The functions of the integumentary system are: protection, regulation of body temperature, vitamin D production, sensation, and excretion VII. Layers of the skin A. 3 major layers 1. Epidermis 2. Dermis a) Epidermis + Dermis = Cutaneous Layer 3. Hypodermis a) Subcutaneous layer VIII. Epidermis A. Location → superficial B. Function → protection C. 5 Layers from deepest to outermost layer→ 1. Stratum basale or germinativum → alive a) Deepest b) Reproduces and grows c) Certain melanocytes (1) Melanosomes produce the pigment melanin (2) Traps UV radiation → prevents damage to underlying layers 2. Stratum spinosum → alive a) Contains keratinocytes (1) Makes keratin → protein that makes the epidermis waterproof and resistant to pathogens 3. Stratum granulosum → dying a) Contains granules → waterproofing and production of keratin 4. Stratum lucidum → dead a) Thin layer of dead cells 5. Stratum corneum → dead a) Thick layer of dead cells → fully keratinized
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IX. Epidermis Layers A. Thick (non hairy) vs. Thin (hairy) skin 1. Langerhan cells also called “dendritic cells” → immune system function a) Refer to top image → 2. Merkel cells are sensory cells, help distinguish fine touch X. Skin Structure → Dermis A. Below epidermis B. Contains all major tissue types C. Accessory glands 1. Sudoriferous (sweat) glands 2. Sebaceous (oil) glands 3. Hair follicles and arrector pili muscles 4. Collagen, elastic, and nerve fibers 5. Blood vessels D. Binds epidermis to subcutaneous tissue XI. Dermal Sensory Receptors A. Fourth image → XII. Skin Structure → Subcutaneous Layer A. Also known as hypodermis 1. Composed of (fat) and loose connective tissue 2. Blood vessels and nerves B. Functions 1. Energy storage 2. Cushions and insulates C.
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