a&p lecture final study guide.docx

a&p lecture final study guide.docx - A fracture is one...

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A ______________ fracture is one in which the bone is broken in mutlipe pieces usually due to a crushing injury. Answer: comminuted Describe three factors that effect bone growth and health. 1 Nutrition - important because the body has to have vitamin D in order to absorb calcium, which makes up the bone structure. Vitamin C is also necessary for collagen synthesis by osteoblasts. 2 Hormones - Too little or too much of the growth horemone can affect a person’s height. The thyroid horemone is important because it is needed for growth of all tissues including cartilage. Estrogen & Testosterone initally starts the bone growth and account for the burst of growth at puberty. 3 Genetics - This determines the shape and size of a bone at a person’s final height. In conclusion, nutrition and hormones can change how the genetics play out. The flexible strength of bone occurs because of __collagen fibers__ Which of these is NOT a function of bone? __vitamin D storage__ Growth in the length of a long bone occurs __at the epiphyseal plate__ The primary function of osteoclasts is to __break down bone__ A fracture in the shaft of a bone is a break in the __diaphysis__ If the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) increase, osteoclast activity ___________, and blood calcium levels ____________. Answer: increases, increases Yellow bone marrow is __mostly adipose tissue__ Intramembranous ossification mainly produces bone of which shape? ___ Flat ___ Describe how blood calcium homeostasis is regulated. Be complete and include a full description of the cells and the hormones involved. Answer : Calcium moves into the bones as osteoblasts build new bones. Osteoclasts break down the bones. The PTH (parathyroid hormone) is the main controller of blood calcium levels. Calcitonin slows down or stops osteoclast activity and is secreted from the thyroid gland when calcium levels are too high. Osteoprotegerin is secreted by osetoblasts and otehr cells and stops the osteoclast from being produced by binding to WRINKLE, which is the receptor activator of nuclear factor - kappaB ligand. WRINKLE combines with RANK (receptor activator of nuclear factor KappaB). Why is the maintenance of blood calcium homeostasis so important? Answer : In order for muscle contractions and membrane potentials to occur normally, the blood calcium levels must be maintained with narrow limits.
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Spongy bone consists of interconnecting bony platelets called __trabeculae__ . Which type of joint is the most movable? __synovial __ The inability to produce the fluid that keeps most joints moist would likely be caused by a disorder of the __synovial membrane __ The intervertebral disks are examples of __symphyses __ Which type of joint is the epiphyseal growth plate in an immature bone? __synchondrosis __ Which type of movement incorporations the most number of other movement types? Name one example of a synovial joint that exhibits this type of movement.
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