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UNIT FIVE: FREEDOM OF THE HUMAN PERSON THE WILL: ITS EXISTENCE, NATURE AND OBJECT The will , in philosophy and psychology, is a term used to describe the faculty of mind that is alleged to stimulate motivation of purposeful activity. • The concept has been variously interpreted by philosophers, some accepting the will as a personal faculty or function (for example, Plato , Aristotle , Aquinas , Descartes and Kant ) • And other seeing it as the externalized result of the interaction of conflicting elements. Thomas Aquinas’ Ideas About the Will and Human Freedom Five Stages of a Human Act (from perception to action of the will) Stage 1. Intellect - apprehends a situation and determines that a particular end is appropriate (good) for the given circumstances. Will - approves a simple volition for that end (or can reject, change the subject, etc.) Stage 2 .Intellect - determines that the end can be achieved, is within the power of the agent. Will - Intention: to achieve the end through some means Stage 3. Intellect - Counsel: determines various means to achieve the end. • Will - accepts these means (or can ask for more means) Stage 4 . Intellect - determines the best means for the given circumstances. • Will - Electio (choice): selects the means the intellect proposes as best. Stage 5. Intellect - Command: says "Do the best means!" • Will - Use: exercises control over the body or mind as needed. HUMAN ACTS AND VOLUNTARINESS CITY OF ANGELS • The only thing that separates us from angels is... freedom/free will from the latin word VOLUNTAS ACTIONS HAVE CONSEQUENCES LEARNING OUTCOMES ACTIONS AND CONSEQUENCES – All our actions (spoken and physical) have consequences. Some are good (positive) and some bad (negative). – Consequences are a result or an effect . – It is important to try to behave in a way that
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