ELECT REPORT 1.docx - 1.0INTRODUCTION...

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1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this laboratory experiment was to verify Ohm’s Law,  Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law and Kirchhoff’s Current Law for the  application in DC electrical systems. In addition, it included  experiments involving Voltage Reference Point, Meter Loading and  Parallel Circuit. The laboratory experiment also introduced the  operation of various instruments used for measurement of electrical  systems, namely the Dual DC Power Supply, Digital Multimeter and  Bread Board.   2.0 SUMMARY The graph obtained from both the calculated and measured value of  current in experiment 1 shows the graphs are linear and hence this  verifies Ohm’s Law. The measured and calculated values in  experiment 1 and experiment 3 had very low deviation in the values.  Experiment 2 also verifies Kirchhoff’s Current and Voltage Law. In  experiment 3, it has been shown that when the reference point of a  wire is changed to the opposite direction, the polarity of the wire is  negative in respect to the original direction. The voltage results  obtained from experiment 4 had high deviation of the calculated and  measured value. This in turn shows that if the resistance of the  voltmeter is comparable to the resistance of the circuit, then voltage  across each resistor will fall greatly. In addition, in experiment 4,  accurate results for the current across the circuit could not be  measured due to the limitation of the ammeter which, in turn, gave  unreliable values for the current. In experiment 5, which involved the  parallel circuit, a reliable vale was reached for the current across each  resistor as it had small difference between the calculated and  measured current.
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3.0 CIRCUITS
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4.0 RESULTS 4.1 TABLE 1: OHM’S LAW Supply E 1 Measured Current Calculated Current Difference Calculated  Ω 0 V 0 mA 0 mA 0 % Ω 2 V 1.43 mA 1.33 mA 7.52 % 1399  Ω 4 V 2.72 mA 2.67 mA 1.87 % 1471  Ω 6 V 4.09 mA 4.00 mA 2.25 % 1467  Ω 8 V 5.43 mA 5.33 mA 1.88 % 1473  Ω 10 V 6.83 mA 6.67 mA 2.40 % 1464  Ω 12 V 8.21 mA 8.00 mA 2.63 % 1462  Ω 14 V 9.60 mA 9.33 mA 2.89 % 1458  Ω 16 V 11.04 mA 10.67 mA 3.47 % 1449  Ω 18 V 12.35 mA 12.00 mA 2.92 % 1457  Ω 20 V 13.78 mA 13.33 mA 3.38 % 1451  Ω NOTE: Difference is equal to the difference between the  Measured Current and the Calculated Current divided by the  Calculated Current then times by 100 to get a percentage. Calculated   is equal to the Supply  Ω E divided by the Measured  Current. 4.2 TABLE 2: BASIC MEASUREMENT 1  Quantity Measured Calculated E 1 18 V 18 V V R1 5.82 V 5.7551 V V R2 12.18 V 12.2449 V I R1 12.38 mA 12.244 mA I R2 12.38 mA 12.244 mA
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4.3 TABLE 3: BASIC MEASUREMENT II Quantity Measured Calculated E 1 18 V 18 V V R1 2.83V  2.8485 V V R2 5.93 V 6.0606 V V R3 9.24 V 9.0909 V V A 18 V 18 V V B 15.18 V 15.1515 V V C 9.24 V 9.0909 V V D 0 V 0 V V AB 2.93 V
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