PICT103 Module 9.pptx

PICT103 Module 9.pptx - PICT103 Introduction to Criminology...

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Dr James Martin Week 9 – Race & Crime PICT103: Introduction to Criminology * Indigenous students please be advised that this lecture contains images of deceased persons
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Lecture outline Constructing race/ethnicity Immigrants and crime A statistical snapshot Media stereotyping Racism and hate crime Differential policing Indigenous Australians and crime Over-representation in the CJS Neo-colonialism Cultures of resistance Reconciliation
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Part I Constructing race & ethnicity
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What is race? What is ethnicity? Race : physical/biological (common genetic or physical characteristics) Examples of races: black, white, Asian, etc. Ethnicity : distinctive groups based on commonalities of culture, language, religion, etc. Examples of ethnicities: Kurdish, Anglo- Saxon, Jewish, Han Chinese, etc. Nationality : refers to legal citizenship of a particular nation-state: e.g. Australia, India, Russia, etc.
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How many black people are there?
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Fluid concepts - Powerful concepts Neither race nor ethnicity are solely natural categories – divisions are also socially constructed Both are socially defined – meanings ascribed to physical difference are largely invented Both are dynamic and subject to change Both are linked to the maintenance of social boundaries Both are linked to hierarchies (social stratification) and the to absence/presence of economic, political and other types of power
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Social Darwinism A discredited pseudo-science influenced by the work of Charles Darwin Conceptualised human races as different stages of superiority - white people at the top, black people at the bottom and everyone else in between Behaviour & criminality pre-determined Popular in the 19 th and early 20 th centuries, particularly in Europe, the US and Australia Strong influence on Nazism, the eugenics movement and other racist ideologies
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Part II Immigrants and crime
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What is the statistical relationship between immigrants and offending? Data regarding race/ethnicity in Australia is limited, however data about national origin is more readily available: Immigrants (i.e. Australians born overseas) in general have the lowest rates of offending First-generation immigrants (parents born overseas) offend more than their parents but still less than other Australians 2nd+ generation Australians have the highest rates of offending Exceptions are immigrants and descendants from New Zealand, Lebanon, Vietnam, Turkey and Romania (Baur 2006)
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