Bio Midterm Study Guide_.pdf

Bio Midterm Study Guide_.pdf - Chapter 1 Scientific Method...

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Biology Midterm Study Guide Chapter 1: Scientific Method: 1. Predict 2. Hypothesis 3. Test Hypothesis 4. Observations/Data 5. Analysis 6. Report and Repeat -Hypothesis→ Theory (repeated hypotheses) → Law (theory that has been proven thoroughly) -Independent Variable (you have control) -Dependent (thing tested) -Qualitative Data (descriptions) vs. Quantitative Data (numbers and measurements) -Evolution (process of change that transformed life on Earth) Characteristics of Life: 1. Order→ distinct pattern of doing something a. use energy to maintain order 2. Evolutionary Adaptation a. Adapting in order to survive and reproduce b. Ex: Camoflouge 3. Response to Environment a. Ex: Venus Fly Trap→ triggers a response 4. Reproduction 5. Growth and Development 6. Energy Processing a. Cellular Respiration and/or Photosynthesis 7. Regulation a. Ex: Homeostasis 8. All living things have cells Ranking of Life (smallest to largest) 1. Atom 2. Molecule 3. Organelle 4. Cell 5. Tissue 6. Organ 7. Organ System 8. Organism 9. Populations 10. Community 11. Population 12. Ecosystem (cycling of nutrients and flow of energy)
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-Emergent Properties: result from arrangement and interaction of parts within a system -living and nonliving -Ex: A bicycle only functions when all the pieces are put together correctly -Reductionism: reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are manageable to study -molecular structure of DNA -Systems Biology: constructs models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems All cells use DNA as genetic information -Eukaryotic Cell: membrane enclosed organelles, largest being nucleus (Domain Eukarya) -Prokaryotic Cell: simpler, smaller, no nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles (Domain bacteria and domain Archaea) -Genome→ Entire set of genetic instructions -Bioinformatics: use of computational tools to process a large volume of data -Negative Feedback -Ex: Citrate and Phosphofructokinase inhibit production of ATP -Positive Feedback Ex: AMP stimulates production of ATP -Darwin→ Natural Selction and Descent with Modification -Discovery Science→ careful and verifiable observation and analysis of data -Inductive reasoning -Sampling→ taking smaller amounts from a larger Themes of Biology: 1. Diversity and Unity of Life 2. Interdependence of Organisms 3. Evolution 4. Structure and Function 5. Stability and Homeostasis 6. Organization Microscopes: SEM→ Scanning (can see the surface of a specimen) 25X to 250000X TEM→ 750000X 1 nm resolution, in depth of a specimen Chapter 2 (Chemistry and Water): Cells are about 70-95% water -Water is a polar molecules -caused by oxygen’s high electronegativity -oxygen pulls the electrons being shared in the covalent bonds closer to its nucleus -makes oxygen slightly negative and hydrogen slightly positive -charge separation that creates a polar molecule -Polarity allows water molecules to form H bonds with each other Hydrogen Bonds: -groups water molecules together -water can make up to 4 hydrogen bonds
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Water (come from structure and interaction of water): -cohesive behavior -ability to moderate temperature
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