Science Grade 10 Exam Review.docx

Science Grade 10 Exam Review.docx - Science Grade 10 Exam...

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Science Grade 10 Exam Review Chemistry: Pages 302-306: #1-4, 7 – 10, 13-17, 19-20, 23-25, 30, 34-36, 41, 44, 45, 47-49, 53,54,60 What’s the difference between physical and chemical changes? Physical Change Chemical Change A change that does not produce a new substance. A change that produces a new substance Most physical changes can be reversed. Most chemical changes can’t be reversed ex: Change in state ex: Forest Fire, boiling an egg What are clues that a chemical change has occurred? 1) A new colour is observed 2) A new odour is smelled 3) Heat or light is produced or absorbed 4 ) Bubble or Gas are formed 5) A solid material (precipitate) forms in a liquid What are the chemical families on the periodic table? Alkali Metals = Group 1 Alkali Earth Metals = Group 2 Halogens = Group 17 Noble Gases = Group 18 What is a Diatomic Molecule? What are all 7? Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of either the same or different chemical elements. H 2 Hydrogen Gas O 2 Oxygen Gas N 2 Nitrogen Gas F 2 Fluorine Gas Cl 2 Chlorine Gas Br 2 Bromine Gas I 2 Iodine Gas What is an ion? Know ionic charges for the groups in the Periodic table. Ions are formed when an atom (or a group of atoms) gains or losses of atleast 1 electron. 2 types of ions Positively Charged Ion = Cation Negatively Charged Ion = Anion
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What’s the difference between ionic and molecular compounds? Made of 2 Atoms Naming Compounds (Ionic Compound) (Molecular Compound) Metal + Non Metal non-metal + non -metal - Write the name of the first - Use prefixes for both elements except "mono" on the first element (metal) and change - Write out the first and second element names changing the ending of the the ending of the second second element to "ide" element (non metal) to "ide" Check to see if the first element - Use the common name of the compound if it has one is one of the seven special transition metals Yes No - Use Roman Numerals -You are done - Charges must balance Writing Formulas for Compounds (Ionic Compound) (Molecular Compound) Metal + Non - Metal non-metal + non-metal - Write symbol for metal and place charge on it. - Write symbol for first non-metal and write subscript according - Write symbol for non-metal and place charge to prefix on it - Write symbol for second non-metal and write subscript according to prefix Can you reduce ? ? ? ? Do the cross over rule Never Reduce ! ! ! ! Can you Reduce ? ? ? ? yes No Divide each subscript by - You are done highest common number What are Polyatomics? What are Oxyacids? - A polyatomic ion is a group of ions that tend to stay together and carry an overall ionic charge Know the following polyatomic ions Know the following transition metals CO 3 2- Carbonate Element Charge Name NO 3 - Nitrate Au +3 +1 Gold (III) Gold (I) PO 4 3- Phosphate Cu +2 +1 Copper (II) Copper (I) SO 4 2- Sulfate Fe +3 +2 Iron (III) Iron (II) ClO 3 - Chlorate Pb +4 +2 Lead (IV) Lead (II) OH - Hydroxide Sn +4 +2 Tin (IV) Tin (II) NH 4 + Ammonium (Only positive polyatomic ion) Mn 4+ 2+ Maganese (IV) Maganese (II) - An oxyacid is an acid that contains an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and at least one other element . ( when naming drop hydro) Examples:
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