Study Guide.docx - Chapter 6 Using Personality Traits to...

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Chapter 6: Using Personality Traits to Better Understand Behavior Be able to differentiate between the (four) different approaches discussed . What are their strengths/weaknesses? Single-Trait Approach Examines the link between personality and behavior by asking What do people like that like to do? o That = important personality trait Ex: self-monitoring and narcissism Self-monitoring Addresses fundamental issues concerning the relationship between one’s private inner reality and the external self-presented to others the degree to which inner and outer selves and behaviors are the same or different across situations High self-monitors (act differently across situations) o discrepant selves and behaviors, look for cues in situation that signal how to act and adjust behavior o Look for cues as to the appropriate way to act, then adjust their behavior accordingly o Less judgable o More likely to be described by close acquaintances as: Skilled in social techniques of imaginative play, pretending and humor (e.g. charades) Talkative Self-dramatizing, histrionic (exaggerates emotion) Initiates humor Verbally fluent Expressive face and gestures Having social poise and presence o Low self-monitors (act similarly across situations) o similar selves and behaviors, are more consistent across situations, more guided by inner personality o Tend to be more consistent regardless of the situation because their behavior is guided more by their inner personality o More judgable o More likely to be described as: Distrustful Perfectionist Touchy and irritable Anxious Introspective Independent Feeling cheated and victimized by life It’s not necessarily better to be high or low: Both poles have positive and negative implications and correlates. Correlates with several behaviors: being a professional stage actor, performance in job interviews, willingness to lie to get a date (behaviors are more likely for high self-monitors) Synder 1974: If you compare different groups, they should score differently based on the criterion of the group o Ex: professional stage actors scored high on his scale and mental patients scored low
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Synder 1974: asked participants to read a passage and try to project specific emotions it is easier to figure out which emotion is being projected when the reader is a high self-monitor Relationships between self-monitoring scores and numerous behaviors: o High self-monitors: Perform better at job interviews Place themselves in central positions in social networks Make more new friends Use more strategies to influence their coworkers Are willing to lie in order to get a date Masturbate more often They also respond differently to advertising—prefer an energy drink if it has an image- oriented name Research indicates that self-monitoring is related to the experience of emotion o
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