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Ch+4+Power+Point.ppt - Chapter 4 Nutrition During Pregnancy...

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Chapter 4 Nutrition During Pregnancy
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Introduction Topics covered include: Status of pregnancy outcome Physiology of pregnancy Embryonic & fetal growth and development Pregnancy weight gain Nutrition and course/outcome of pregnancy Nutrient needs during pregnancy
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Time-related Terms Before, During, and After Pregnancy
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The Status of Pregnancy Outcomes Infant mortality: Reflects general health and socioeconomic status of a population Decreases in mortality related to improvements in social circumstances, safe & nutritious food availability, & infectious disease control
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Natality Statistics: Rates, Definitions, and Trends in the Rates in the United States
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Chronology of Events Related to Declines in Infant Mortality in the United States
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Low Birthweight, Preterm Delivery, and Infant Mortality Low birth weight or preterm infants at high risk of dying in 1st year of life 8.2% of births are LBW yet comprise 66% of infant deaths 12% are born preterm yet account for high incidence of infant deaths
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Reducing Infant Mortality and Morbidity Improve birth weight of newborns Desirable birth weight = 3500-4500 g (7 lb. 12 oz.-10 lb.) Infants born with desirable wt are less likely to develop: Heart and Lung diseases Diabetes Hypertension
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Health Objectives for 2020 for the Nation Related to Pregnant Women and Infants The Health Objectives for 2020 in relation to pregnant women and newborns focus on The reduction of low birth weight Preterm delivery Infant mortality A number of the objectives are related to improvements in nutritional status
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2020 Health Objectives for the Nation Related to Pregnant Women and Infants
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Physiology of Pregnancy Key terms: Gestational age Assessed from date of conception Average pregnancy is 38 weeks Menstrual age Assessed from onset of last menstrual period Average pregnancy is 40 weeks
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Maternal Physiology Changes in maternal body composition & functions occur in specific sequence
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Normal Physiological Changes during Pregnancy Two phases of changes: Maternal anabolic changes Takes place in the 1st half of pregnancy Maternal catabolic changes Takes place in the 2nd half of pregnancy
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Maternal Anabolic and Catabolic Phases of Pregnancy
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Body Water Changes Body water increases from ~7 L to 10 L Results from increased blood and body tissues & extracellular volume & amniotic fluid Edema Swelling due to accumulation of extracellular fluid
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Key Placental Hormones and Examples of their Roles
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Maternal Nutrient Metabolism Changes can be seen in the first few weeks after conception. Ensures that nutrients will be available to the fetus when needed.
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Carbohydrate Metabolism Glucose is preferred fuel for fetus “Diabetogenic effect of pregnancy” results from maternal insulin resistance
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Carbohydrate Metabolism Early pregnancy: High estrogen & progesterone stimulate insulin which increases glucose glycogen & fat Late pregnancy: Human chorionic somatotropin (hCS) & prolactin inhibit conversion of glucose to glycogen & fat
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