skeletal.ppt - Hyaline Cartilage Resilient and flexible...

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Resilient and flexible, highly compressible and good shock absorber Tissue surrounded by perichondrium made of dense irregular CT Cells Chondroblasts produce cartilage matrix Chondrocytes maintain the matrix Matrix Avascular, non-calcified matrix of fibrous proteins Hyaline Cartilage
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Cartilage Appositional Growth Mitotic activity occurs in stem cells within the perichondrium. Mesenchymal cells Dividing undifferentiated stem cell New undifferentiated stem cells and committed cells that differentiate into chondroblasts are formed. Chondroblasts produce new matrix at the periphery. Committed cells differentiating into chondroblasts Chondroblast secreting new matrix As a result of matrix formation, the chondroblasts push apart and become chondrocytes. Chondrocytes continue to produce more matrix at the periphery. Undifferentiated stem cells Chondrocyte secreting new matrix Mature chondrocyte Perichondrium New cartilage matrix Older cartilage matrix
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Cartilage - Interstitial Growth A chondrocyte within a lacuna begins to exhibit mitotic activity. Lacuna Chondrocyte Matrix Two cells (now called chondroblasts) are produced by mitosis from one chondrocyte and occupy one lacuna. Chondroblast Lacuna Each cell produces new matrix and begins to separate from its neighbor. Each cell is now called a chondrocyte. Cartilage continues to grow internally. Chondrocyte New matrix Chondrocyte Lacuna New matrix
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Formation and development of bone begins in the embryo (8th through 12th weeks of embryonic development) Two Types: Intramembranous ossification Bone growth within a membrane Produces flat bones of skull, some of the facial bones, mandible, central part of the clavicle Begins when mesenchyme thickens with capillaries Endochondral ossification Begins with a hyaline cartilage model Produces most bones of skeleton (upper and lower limbs, pelvis, vertebrae, ends of clavicle) An example of this process is long bone development Ossification (osteogenesis)
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Intramembranous Ossification 1 Ossification centers form within thickened regions of mesenchyme.
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