unit three.ppt - TheRockCycle moreminerals...

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The Rock Cycle rock   is a naturally formed,  consolidated material usually  composed of grains of one or  more minerals The  rock cycle   shows how one  type of rocky material gets  transformed into another Representation of how rocks are  formed, broken down, and  processed in the geosphere Arrows indicate possible process  paths within the cycle
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The Rock Cycle and Plate Tectonics Magma  is created by melting of rock  above a subduction zone Less dense magma rises and cools  to form  igneous rock Igneous rock exposed at surface  gets weathered into  sediment Sediments transported to low areas,  buried and hardened into  sedimentary rock Sedimentary rock heated and squeezed at depth to form  metamorphic rock Metamorphic rock may heat up and melt to form  magma Convergent plate boundary
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Igneous Rocks Magma  is molten rock Igneous rocks  form when magma  cools and solidifies Intrusive  igneous rocks form when  magma solidifies underground • Granite is  a common example Extrusive  igneous rocks form when  magma solidifies at the Earth’s  surface (lava) • Basalt is a common example Granite Basalt
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Igneous Rock Textures Texture  refers to the size, shape and  arrangement of grains or other constituents  within a rock Texture of igneous rocks is primarily  controlled by  cooling rate Extrusive igneous rocks   cool quickly at or near  Earth’s surface and are typically  fine-grained   (most crystals <1 mm) Intrusive igneous rocks   cool slowly deep  beneath Earth’s surface and are typically  coarse-grained  (most crystals >1 mm) Coarse-grained igneous rock Fine-grained igneous rock
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Special Igneous Textures pegmatite  is an extremely coarse-grained  igneous rock (most crystals >5 cm) formed when  magma cools  very   slowly  at depth glassy  texture contains no crystals at all, and is  formed by extremely rapid cooling porphyritic  texture includes two distinct crystal  sizes, with the larger having formed first during  slow cooling underground and the small forming  during more rapid cooling at the Earth’s surface Pegmatitic igneous rock Porphyritic igneous rock
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Igneous Rock Identification Igneous rock names are based on  texture  (grain size) and mineralogic  composition Textural classification Plutonic
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