Biol 216 13 Endocrine System 1-48.pdf

Biol 216 13 Endocrine System 1-48.pdf - Power point 13 1 US...

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5/31/17 1 Power point 13 5/31/17 1 US Anti-Doping Agency Claimed to have more than 10 eyewitnesses who would testify that Armstrong used banned blood transfusions, the blood booster EPO, testosterone and other drugs to win the Tour. 5/31/17 2 What are steroids? Steroids A class of lipids Readily diffuse across the cell membrane The term steroid describes both hormones produced by the body and artificially produced medications that duplicate the action for the naturally occurring steroids. 5/31/17 3
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5/31/17 2 Structure of Steroids Main feature of steroids is the fused ring system of 3 cyclohexanes and 1 cyclopentane Large number of carbon-hydrogens (make steroids non-polar). Variety of functional groups that may be attached. 5/31/17 4 Who canname some other common steroids? 5/31/17 5 Steroids are found in many organisms Fungus steroids Ergosterols : same function as cholesterol in animals (required to build and maintain membranes; regulates membrane f luidity over the range of physiological temperatures. Plant steroids Phytosterols : Structural component of cell membrane Brassinosteroids : numerous roles: Pollen tube formation, cell expansion and elongation, vascular differentiation 5/31/17 6
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5/31/17 3 Steroids are found in many organisms Vertebrate Steroids Cholesterol : essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes: membrane permeability and fluidity. Technically classified as a modified steroid (or a sterol: steroid alcohol) Important component for the manufacture of bile acids, steroid hormones and vitamin D Obtained from the diet , and is synthesized in the body from carbohydrates, proteins, fat. Build up canlead toatherosclerosis 5/31/17 7 Steroid Hormone: sterone is a steroid that acts as a hormone. Steroid hormones can be grouped into five types by the receptors to which they bind: 1.Glucocorticoids (corticosteroid) 2.Mineralocorticoids (corticosteroid) 3.Androgens (sex steroid) 4.Estrogens (sex steriod) 5.Progestins (sex steroid) 5/31/17 8 Hormones Signaling molecule secreted by a cell that can alter activities of any cell with receptors for it Typically produced by one tissue and transported through the bloodstream to another tissue to alter its physiological activity Involved with the control of: Development and function of gonads Metabolism Inflammation Salt and water balance in body fluids Molting in insects and crustaceans (e.g ecdysone) 5/31/17 9
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5/31/17 4 Vertebrate steroid hormones Steroid hormones- are lipid soluble I. Sex steroids : subset of sex hormones that produce sex differences or support reproduction; include androgens, estrogens , and progestins. II. Corticosteroids: Most medical 'steroid' drugs are corticosteroids Are synthesized from cholesterol within the adrenal cortex Include glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
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