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Biol 216 3 ES cells BK 31-59.pdf

Biol 216 3 ES cells BK 31-59.pdf - 31 piPSCs Caveat Also...

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5/17/17 1 31 piPSCs: Caveat Also used valproic acid (VPA): a histone deacetylase inhibitor,has been shown to increase reprogramming efficiency. Concern that this could be mutagenic Need to produce large amounts of protein for uptake (not very feasible). 32
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5/17/17 2 Benefit of stem cells Embryonic stem cells can theoretically give rise to all the types of cells in an organism. Bone marrow stem cells: Can generate different types of blood cells Can differentiate intobone, cartilage, fat, muscle 33 34
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5/17/17 3 35 36
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5/17/17 4 37 Can you think of examples of how ESCs can be used for specific beneficial outcomes? 38
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5/17/17 5 Benefits of stem Cells Use stem cells to repair a damaged or diseased organ Type I Diabetes: insulinproducing pancreatic cells Parkinson’s: add/replace dopamine producing cells Huntington’s: add/replace neurons that produce GABA Alzheimer’s:add or replace neurons that produce ACh DamagedImmune Systems due to autoimmune disorders or radiationtreatment for cancer Spinal cord injury Burns/skingrafts 39 Patient’s own skin cells can be reprogrammed to become iPS cells 40
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5/17/17 6 Gene Therapy 41 Caveats of Gene Therapy Jesse Gelsinger (June 18, 1981 - September 17,1999) was the firstperson publicly identified as havingdied in a clinical trial for gene therapy. Suffered from ornithinetranscarbamylase deficiency, an X-linked genetic disease of the liver characterized by an inability to metabolize ammonia - a byproductof protein breakdown 42
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5/17/17 7 Caveats of Gene Therapy On September 13, 1999,Gelsinger was injected with an adenoviral vector carryinga corrected gene to test the safety of the procedure.
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