Biol 216 3 ES cells BK 1-30.pdf

Biol 216 3 ES cells BK 1-30.pdf - Biol 216 May Term...

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5/17/17 1 Biol 216 May Term PowerPoint 3 1 Learning Goals Understand key features of: Nuclear transplantation Cloning: reproductive (SCNT) and therapeutic Describe types of stem cells and their uses/applications Embryonic stem cells iPSCs Be knowledgeable about groundbreakinggenetic engineering technologies that can be used in cells 2
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5/17/17 2 Cell Differentiation Different cell types result from differential gene expression in cells with the same DNA Differences between cells in a multi-cellular organism come almost entirely fromgene expression, not differences in the cells’ genomes These differences arise duringdevelopment, as regulatory mechanisms turn genes off and on 3 C. Elegans: a model system for cell lineage Intestine is derived from one of the first four cells formedfrom the zygote * * # # 4
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5/17/17 3 Evidence for GenomicEquivalence Many experiments support the conclusion that nearly all cells of an organismhave genomic equivalence (the same genes) A key question that emerges is whether genes are irreversibly inactivated duringdifferentiation 5 NuclearTransplantationinAnimals In nuclear transplantation, the nucleus of an unfertilized egg cell or zygote is replaced with the nucleus of a differentiated cell Experiments with frogembryos have shown that a transplanted nucleus can often supportnormal development of the egg 6
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5/17/17 4 7 ReproductiveCloning of Mammals In 1997,Scottish researchers announced the birth of Dolly, a lamb cloned froman adult sheep by nuclear transplantation froma differentiated mammary (udder) cell Out of 277 successful attempts to fuse adult cells with enucleated eggs, one lamb (Dolly) survived to be born .
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