Biol 216 13 Endocrine System 49-96.pdf

Biol 216 13 Endocrine System 49-96.pdf - Neurosecretory...

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5/31/17 1 Neurosecretory neurons that release ADH and oxytocin Hypothalamus Axons Capillary Pituitary stalk Vesicles containing hormones Posterior pituitary Anterior pituitary Blood out Blood in 5/31/17 49 5/31/17 50 Prolactin (PRL) Gonadotropins (FSH and LH) Thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH) Adrenocorticotropi c hormone (ACTH) Growth hormone (GH) Mammary glands Testes in males Ovaries in females Thyroid gland Adrenal cortex Muscle, bone and other tissues Produces milk Produce gametes and hormones Increases rate of metabolism Helps regulate fluid balance; helps body cope with stress Promotes growth Anterior pituitary 5/31/17 51
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5/31/17 2 Anterior Pituitary (continued) MSH produced by cells in the intermediate lobe (boundary between theanterior and posterior lobes) of the pituitary gland 5/31/17 52 Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Oxytocin Nephrons in kidneys Uterus Mammary glands Increases permeability Stimulates contraction Stimulates milk release Posterior Pituitary 5/31/17 53 8 Major Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary 1. Prolactin (PRL) Breast development, milk secretion 2. Growth hormone (GH) Bone and tissue growth, glucose metabolism Stimulates IGF (insulin like growth factor) release in liver 3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Thyroid hormones, thyroid growth 5/31/17 54
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5/31/17 3 4. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): causes increased production and release of corticosteroids. Stimulates glucocorticoid secretion in adrenal cortex gluc ose + cort ex + ster oid ) derives from their role in the regulation of the metabolism of glucose, their synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and their steroid structure Dampenthe immune response Example: cortisol (involved in stress response) 5. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Egg development, female sex hormones Sperm production 6. Luteinizing hormone (LH) Ovulation Male sex hormones 8 Major Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary 5/31/17 55 7. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Produces a darkening of the skin 8. Endorphins Neurotransmitters that affect pain pathways in the PNS, inhibiting perception of pain 8 Major Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary 5/31/17 56 Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Regulates body water balance Oxytocin Childbirth: Stimulates contraction of smooth muscle in the uterus Triggers milk release from mammary glands 5/31/17 57
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5/31/17 4 Thyroid Secretes thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), calcitonin (calcium homeostasis) Thyroid Gland Thyroid hormones stimulate metabolism, development, and maturation 5/31/17 58 Thyroid Hormones Hypothyroidism : low thyroid output Physically and mentally languid (sluggish) Slow heart beat, weak pulse In children, leads to cretinism: stunted growth, diminished intelligenc Hyperthyroidism: overproduction of thyroid hormones Irregular, rapid heart rate Irritability Insomnia Weight loss Emotional instability 5/31/17 59 Recall: catecholamines include epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine TRH is produced bythe hypothalamus TRH regulates THS, which is produced by theanterior pituitary THS regulates the hormonal output from the thyroid gland 5/31/17 60
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