302 14TH CENT RENAISSANCE (1).docx

302 14TH CENT RENAISSANCE (1).docx - 14TH CENTURY...

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14 TH CENTURY & RENAISSANCE BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY 1305-77 Pope at Avignon, not Rome due to Roman turbulence Misperception that popes were captives of French king (Avignon not part of France) Misperception of decadence and corruption: Opulent court Corruption at court Beginning of antipapal sentiment Loss of papal prestige Began decline of papacy in Middle Ages Pope returned to Rome 1377 Moved into Vatican Palace GREAT SCHISM 1378-1417 Romans demand Roman pope from cardinals Elected Urban VI Dissenting French cardinals elected Clement VII Two popes – mutual excommunications Divided Europe along political lines between the two popes Gave rise to conciliarism Council of Pisa elected third pope: John XXIII Three rival popes with mutual excommunications Council of Constance ended schism by electing Martin IV Further decline in papal prestige HUNDRED YEARS WAR 1337-1453 Between England and France Problem over dynastic succession to French throne France was devastated England lost Helped strengthen French monarchy Beginning of modern warfare; professional armies, gunpowder End of mounted knight: Crecy, Agincourt, Poitiers Eclipse of castle, rise of fortified city due to artillery Beginning of the end of feudal society
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BLACK DEATH 1347-51 Pandemic periodically returned every 10-15 years Fleas from Mongolia travelled on rodents & humans along the silk route Bubonic [50% mortality], pneumonic [ 90%] , septicemic [100%] 25-50% mortality rate in west Europe
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