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Biological Macromolecules Definition and types Large moleculars unique to living organisms Include:  Carbohydrates (Sugars) Lipids (Fats) Nucleic Acids Proteins General Properties of Macromolecules 20 elements found in livig organisms ( Fig A1.1 ) 6 found in high amounts: C, H, O, P, S, N Chemical bonds o Covalent bonds  ( Slide 2 ) e.g. H_2, CO_2 Strong  (Slide Formed and broken by enzymes in cells o Non-covalent bonds ( Slide 3 ) e.g. between water molecules  Weak ( slide 4 ) Include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waal interactions,  hydrophobic interactions Hydrogen bonds exist between hydrogen and a more  electronegative element (e.g. O, N) Presence of many non-covalent bonds within and between  macromolecules enhances stability of entire structure  Formed and broken spontaneously in cells Monomer/Polymer relationships o
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