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Biology Study Guide Exam 2 Genetics.docx

Biology Study Guide Exam 2 Genetics.docx - BSC2010 Genetics...

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BSC2010 – Genetics Exam 2 Study Guide Lecture 1 – Study Questions 1. What are the two main processes by which genetic material is replicated (transmitted) between cells? Mitosis and Binary Fission 2. How are binary fission and mitosis similar? How are they different? Binary fission and mitosis both are processes by which information is transmitted. Binary fission is the process by which info is transmitted in prokaryotes. Mitosis it in eukaryotes. 3. What are the major stages of the eukaryote cell cycle? In which phase is DNA replicated? In which phase does mitosis occur? The two major stages of the eukaryotic cell cycle are the M phase (mitosis) and interphase. Interphase is divided into three subphases: the G1 (GAP 1), S (synthesis), and G2 (GAP 2) . DNA is replicated in the S phase. Mitosis occurs in the M phase. 4. Describe the major stages of mitosis? What happens in each phase? 1) Prophase : - the chromosomes become much more tightly coiled and condensed - each chromosome has two DNA molecules called sister chromatids , joined at a region called the centromere - centromeres serve as poles toward which the chromosomes move - the spindle forms between the poles from microtubules - kinetochore microtubules attach to kinetochores on the chromatid centromeres sister chromatids attach to kinetochore microtubules from opposite sides so that the two chromatids will move to opposite poles sister chromatids become daughter chromatids after separation 2) Prometaphase: - the nuclear envelope breaks down and chromatids attach to the kinetochore microtubules 3) Metaphase: - the chromosomes line up at the midline of the cell (equatorial plate) 4) Anaphase: - the chromatids separate, and the daughter chromosomes move toward the poles 5) Telophase: - nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes, and the spindle breaks down and chromosomes become less compact Then Cytokinesis: - In animals: cell membrane pinches in between the nuclei - In plants: vesicles fuse to form a cell plate (and eventually a cell wall) that divides the cell into two 5. What is the difference between a chromatid and chromosome? What is a centromere? What is a kinetochore? A chromatid is one out of the two similar copies of DNA joined by a centromere that altogether makes up a single chromosome. Chromosome are long, continuous strands of DNA. A centromere is the region of a chromosome to which the microtubules of the sidle attach, via the kinetochore. A kinetochore is a complex of proteins associated with the centromere. They have molecular motor proteins (kinesin and dynein), which move the
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chromosomes along the microtubules. The kinetochore microtubules shorten from the poles, drawing the chromosomes towards the poles. 6. What are the two major forms of reproduction? Which one is associated with meiosis?
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