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EE367LectureNotes_NoGuidedNotes.pdf

EE367LectureNotes_NoGuidedNotes.pdf - EE367 Introduction to...

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EE367: Introduction to Microprocessors EE 367 Introduction Microprocessors, Lecture Notes Prof. Brian Armstrong Part 1: Computers, Microprocessors and Microcontrollers Contents 1 Computers 2 1.1 Early digital data processing devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 The stored program computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 Early computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 Microprocessors 5 2.1 Basic elements of a computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 History of the microprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 Microcontrollers (MCU = MicroController Unit) 8 3.1 Microcontrollers integrate many peripherals into one chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2 Memory types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.3 The PIC18 Microcontroller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.4 Harvard vs. von Neumann memory architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.5 RISC versus CISC computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.5.1 Instruction set orthogonality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.5.2 Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.6 Benchmarks and performance comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4 Conclusions 17 Part 1: Computers, Microprocessors and MCU’s (Revised: Feb 10, 2016) Page 1-1
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EE367: Introduction to Microprocessors Section 1.1 1 Computers 1.1 Early digital data processing devices The Jacquard loom (1801) is a remarkable innovation. It executes instructions stored as digital data. The sequence of instructions can be modified, however, there are no conditional branches. Figure 1: Jacquard loom, an 1801 innovation that executes a sequence of instructions under digital control (photo credit: Deutsches Museum). Tapestry of Joseph Marie Jacquard. The Jacquard tapestry was made with 24,000 punched cards and was available on order Charles Babbage (1791-1871), conceived the digital computer and built early but non-functional prototypes. A Babbage difference engine was built in 1989 by the London Science Museum (it works!) Part 1: Computers, Microprocessors and MCU’s (Revised: Feb 10, 2016) Page 1-2
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EE367: Introduction to Microprocessors Section 1.3 1.2 The stored program computer Stored program computers are devices that Execute a sequence of instructions The sequence of instructions can be modified, so that the device can perform diverse functions The set of possible instructions includes conditional branches (instructions that can change the sequence of execution based on data) 1.3 Early computers John v. Neumann and J. Robert Oppenheimer and IAS Machine. Programming an early computer. Figure 2: The “IAS Machine” built by von Neumann and others at Princeton Institute for Advanced Study, 1945-1951. With innovations in memory, it was one of the first stored program machines with program and data in memory and conditional branching. Part 1: Computers, Microprocessors and MCU’s (Revised: Feb 10, 2016) Page 1-3
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EE367: Introduction to Microprocessors Section 1.3 Early computers (continued) 1950-1990 The fastest computers made with a single processor IBM System 360 mainframe computer, deliveries from 1965 to 1978, $1m to $10m, was a huge success 1985, Cray 2 reaches 5 nS per instruction. Cray 2 includes 8 cores in liquid coolant for 1.9 GFlop (Seymour Cray, Cray Computer, Chippewa Falls, Wi) Microprocessor : Central Processing Unit (CPU) on one chip From 1990 onwards, fastest supercomputers are made with 1,000’s to 1,000,000’s of microprocessors When two or more CPU’s area included on one chip, they are called cores Figure 3: 1963 U.S. Navy / Univac 642B computer was made with 10,000 transistors on 3,000 cards
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