ISLAM 302.docx - ISLAM ISLAM 622 A.D PRESENT Islam =...

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ISLAM ISLAM 622 A.D. – PRESENT Islam = submission to God One who submits is a Muslim Essential beliefs: Absolute monotheism – Allah Qur’an is literal word of God Muhammad (570-632) is God’s final messenger / prophet God's power and magnificence, God is creator of universe, angels / jinns, charity and mercy, individual responsibility / repentance, final judgment, Five pillars of Islam Profession /witness of faith, prayer 5 times/ day, alms, fast during Ramadan, pilgrimage to mecca Greater jihad = struggle to do God’s will in life Lesser jihad = holy war Two major divisions: Sunnis Largest group Shiites 10-15% (Iran) Judaism and Christianity related to Islam / people of the book dhimmis MUHAMMAD’S MILITARY ACTIVITIES 624 began attacks on Meccan caravans 624 Battle of Badr Outnumbered Muslims defeated Meccans 625 Battle of Uhud Muslim defeat / Muhammad injured 627 Battle of the Ditch Ditch neutralized Meccan cavalry / Muslim victory Executed Jewish tribes who turned traitor Rewarded faithful Jewish tribes 628 Truce of Hudaybiyah with Mecca 630 Muhammad said Mecca broke truce Marched on Mecca and it capitulated Defeated other Bedouin tribes who refused to join him Unified Bedouins under Islam
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FIRST FOUR CALIPHS OF ISLAM Abu Bakr 632 – 4 Unified Arabia Umar 634 – 44 Al-Faruq (He who distinguishes between right and wrong) St. Paul of Islam – greatly venerated after Muhammad Implemented poll tax [jizya] for non Muslims Defeated Byzantines at Yarmuk 636 Took Jerusalem 638 Revered as site where Muhammad began Night Journey to get secrets of heaven Third holiest site in Islam Quickly transformed into major Muslim site (Dome of the Rock under caliph Abd al-Malik [685 – 705])
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