Sociology Lecture #21.docx

Sociology Lecture #21.docx - Sociology Lecture#21 Wednesday...

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Sociology Lecture #21 Wednesday June 21 st, 2017 Economy Economy - the social institution that organizes a society’s production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services Influential social institution (Karl Marx) Reductionist – so many institutions contribute to our norms and dominate culture and not only the economy Includes both goods (material artifacts - thing you buy) and services (getting your hair cut, etc) o Distribution of goods and services impacts society Agriculture Revolution Agriculture Technology – after people moved away from hunting and gathering, meant that for the first-time people were getting a surplus (agriculture was 50x more productive) o Increase in agricultural technology o Productive specialization (specialize in particular areas) o Created permanent settlements (likely to stay in a single place) Productive Specialization - speciali Permanent Settlements Trade – trade between people in these communities Industrial Revolution Most powerful change to the economy and provoked other change New Forms of Energy – invention of the steam engine (move from human and animal power to engine power) Centralization of Work in Factories – rather than work happening at home, work was happening in factories where steam engine was centralized Manufacturing and Mass Production – people used to grow raw materials, now they’re being transformed into products Specialization – further increase in specialization, used to make things start to finish, now they specialize in one part of the process Wage labour – people used to be self-employed but now are working for strangers for a set wage Information Revolution A Post-industrial Economy - a productive system based on service work and extensive use of information technology o A lot of people still work in centralized factories which we associate with industrial revolution, however changes to work have been made Advent of Computers – technology and computers have altered the characteristics of work From Tangible Products to Ideas – rather than working with goods people were working more with symbols, industrial rev = material goods, information rev = graphic design, ideas
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From Mechanical Skills to Literacy Skills – before you needed some understanding of machines, maybe science, now the focus is on computer skills, writing, reading From Factories to Almost Anywhere – you can work from anywhere and everywhere, virtual office, ex: coffee shops or airports used as workplaces Creative Economy A paradox of creative economy of being fun and cool flexible lifestyle but also a site of social inequality o Sociological research about inequality in the workplace, however creative economy is operating outside of rigid boundaries which should give opportunities to rid themselves inequality o “if you’re creative, no one cares about what your skin looks
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