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Theme 4 Module 1 .docx - BIOLOGY 1A03 Theme 4 Module 1 and...

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BIOLOGY 1A03 Theme 4 Module 1 and 2 November 1, 2015 Gabriel Kuper DNA Replication and Mitosis The Cell Cycle Cell Proliferation in Prokaryotes Binary fission (a form of asexual reproduction) Cell division initiates when the DNA of the bacterial chromosome is attached by proteins to the inside of the plasma membrane DNA replication can then begin along an origin of replication region of the bacterial chromosome Cell begins to elongate and the newly synthesized DNA is also anchored to the plasma membrane The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Dividing and Non-dividing Eukaryotic Cells Early embryos contain stem cells which are unspecialized cells that can both reproduce indefinitely and under appropriate conditions, are able to differentiate into specialized cells of one or more types After an organism is fully grown, cell division can then lead to continual renewal and repair of cells that make up various tissues Adult stem cells are not able to find rise to all cell types in the organism, but instead are able to replace non-reproducing specialized cells Note: satellite stem cells are able to activate from G0 phase and differentiate into specialized cells Interphase G0 phase – Pause in the cell cycle G1 phase – Prepares the cell for DNA synthesis S-Phase – DNA synthesis G2 phase – Prepares the cell for mitosis 1
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BIOLOGY 1A03 Theme 4 Module 1 and 2 November 1, 2015 Gabriel Kuper 2
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Prior to Mitosis, DNA Replication DNA sequences are replicated from end to end of the DNA molecule and the newly synthesized molecule is associated with the histones and other chromosomal proteins that allow for tight compaction Centromere
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