Chapter 5 Gender.docx - Chapter 5 Gender 1 Biological...

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Chapter 5 Gender 1. Biological, social, and cognitive influences on gender Biological influence on gender Gender refers to the characteristics of people as females and males A gender role is a set of expectations that prescribes how females and maes should think, act and feel Because of pubertal change, sexuality plays a more important role in gender development for adolescents than for children Freud’s and Erikson’s theories promote the idea that anatomy is destiny Today’s Developmentalists are interactions when biological and environmental influences on gender are at issue The evolutionary psychology view, evolutionary adaptations produced psychological sex differences, especially in the area of mate selection However, criticisms of the evolutionary psychology view have been made, such as gender differences being influenced more strongly by environmental experiences Gender differences have been found in the developmental trajectories of the brain in adolescence but overall there are more similarities than differences in the brain of males and females Social influences on gender In the social role view, women have less power and status than med do and control fewer resources o Social role theory - theory stating that gender differences mainly result from contrasting roles of females and males, with females having less power and status and controlling fewer resources In this view gender hierarchy and sexual division of labor are important causes of sex- differentiated behavior The social cognitive theory of gender emphasizes that adolescents’ gender development is influenced by their observation and imitation of others’ gender behavior, as well as by rewards and punishments for gender appropriate and gender inappropriate behavior
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