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Chapter 2 puberty.docx

Chapter 2 puberty.docx - Chapter 2 puberty health and...

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Chapter 2 puberty, health and biological foundations Puberty Puberty is a brain-neuroendocrine process occurring primarily in early adolescence that provides stimulation for the rapid physical change involved in this period of development puberty determinants include heredity, hormones, weight, and percentage of body fat o hormones - powerful chemical secreted by the endocrine glands and carried through the body by the bloodstream two classes of hormones that are involved in pubertal change are androgens and estrogens o androgens - the main class of male sex hormones o estrogens - the main class of female sex hormones the endocrine system’s role involves the interaction of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads. o Hypothalamus - a structure in the brain that interacts with the pituitary gland to monitor the bodily regulation of hormones. o Pituitary - this master gland produces hormones that stimulate other glands. It also influences growth by producing growth hormones; it sends gonadotropins to the testes and ovaries and a thyroid-stimulating hormone to the thyroid gland. It sends a hormone to the adrenal gland as well o Thyroid gland - it interacts with the pituitary gland to influence growth o Adrenal gland - it interacts with the pituitary gland and likely places a role in pubertal development, but less is known about its function than about sex glands. Recent research, however, suggests it may be involved in adolescent behaviour, particularly for boys o The gonads, or sex glands - these consist of the testes in males and ovaries in females. The sex glands are strongly involved in the appearance of secondary sex characteristics, such as facial hair in males and breast development in females. The general class of hormones called estrogen is dominant in females and androgens are dominant in males. More specifically testosterone in males and estradiol in females are key hormones in pubertal development Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) which are secreted by the pituitary gland are important aspects of the endocrine system. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted by the hypothalamus o FSH - stimulates follicle development in females and sperm production in males o LH - regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development in females, and testosterone production in males. o GnRH - is linked to pubertal timing The sex hormone system is a negative feedback system o If the level of sex hormones rises too high, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland reduce their stimulation of the glands. Decreasing the production of sex hormones.
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Leptin and kisspeptins have been proposed as pubertal initiators but research has not consistently supported this role.
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