Chapter 3 The Brain and Cognitive Development.docx

Chapter 3 The Brain and Cognitive Development.docx -...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

Chapter 3 The Brain and Cognitive Development The Brain The neuroconstructivist view This increasingly popular view states that biological processes and environmental conditions influence the brain’s development; the brain has plasticity; and cognitive development is closely linked with brain development o A. biological processes (genes) Environmental experiences (enriched or impoverished) influence the brains development o B. the brain has plasticity and is context dependent o C. development of the brain is linked closely with cognitive development Neurons Neurons - nerve cells, which are the nervous system’s basic units. o Made up of a cell body, dendrites and axons Myelination - is the process by which the axon portion of the neuron becomes covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells, which increases the speed and efficiency of information processing in the nervous system. o Myelination continues to increase during adolescence Synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex where reasoning and self-regulation occur, also continues through adolescence Brain structure, cognition, and emotion The corpus callosum - a large bundle of axon fibers that connects the brain’s left and right hemispheres, thickens in adolescence, and this thickening improves the adolescent’s ability to process information. The prefrontal cortex- the highest level of the frontal loves that is involved in reasoning, decision making, and self-control, matures much later (continuing to develop in emerging adulthood) than the amygdala, o Amygdala – limbic system structure especially involved in emotions such as anger. The later development of the prefrontal cortex combined with the earlier maturity of the amygdala may explain the difficult adolescents have in putting the brakes on their emotional intensity. Experience and plasticity Experience plays an important role in development of the brain in childhood and adolescence. Although, early experiences are very important influences on brain development, the brain retains considerable plasticity in adolescence New brain cells may be generated during adolescence. The earlier brain injury occurs; the more successful recovery is likely to be The cognitive developmental view Piaget’s theory Piaget’s widely acclaimed theory stresses the concept of adaptation, schemas, assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration.
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

o Assimilation - the incorporation of new information into existing knowledge o Accommodation - an adjustment of a schema in response to new information o Schemas - a mental concept or framework that is useful in organizing and interpreting information o Equilibration - a mechanism in Piaget’s theory that explains how individuals shift from one state of thought to the next. The shift occurs as individuals experience cognitive conflict or disequilibrium in trying to understand the world. Eventually the individual resolves the conflict and reaches a balance, or equilibrium of thought
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Fall '08

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern