intro_ling-2014-02-sounds_i-handout.pdf

intro_ling-2014-02-sounds_i-handout.pdf - Diagram of...

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1/13/2014 1 Speech Sounds (Phonetics) Part I Diagram of communication Process of communication One speaker has a thought to convey S/he produces vocal sounds connected to that meaning Sound originates as air in the lungs, passes through the larynx and mouth, and out of the lips A listener hears the vocal sounds The listener interprets the speech sounds; the listener forms thoughts similar to the speaker’s original thoughts This process of communication may be called the speech chain Types of phonetics Phonetics covers three distinct fields of study Auditory phonetics : studies the perception of speech sounds Acoustic phonetics : studies the physical properties of sound (sound waves, frequencies, volume, etc.) Articulatory phonetics : studies how sounds are produced in the vocal tract We are concerned primarily with articulatory phonetics Articulatory phonetics Concerned with describing how sounds are produced Why would one want to do this? If we know how sounds are produced, we can develop a system (such as a writing system) for representing sounds in the world’s languages Can also compare languages and dialects How? A written system (orthography) is best A written system that represents all speech sounds in the world’s languages phone : smallest unit of sound in a language A written system that has one symbol for every sound A system that is relatively easy to learn, based on systems already known A system that is easy to type, print
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1/13/2014 2 Can’t we just use English orthography? English orthography is problematic Single sounds may be represented by different letters shy, mission, nation, glacial, sure sea, scene, see, thief, amoeba, machine Same letter(s) may be used to represent multiple sounds sign, pleasure, resign father, about, any, age, apple thy, thigh English spelling/reading is difficult to learn It doesn’t work well to transcribe other languages English orthography has not substantially changed in over 600 years, despite the fact that the language has The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) A transcription system designed by the International Phonetic Association to transcribe all the speech sounds of the world Basic principle: one symbol = one sound IPA lets us represent our discussion of articulatory phonetics in a written form This class: students will be expected to memorize the IPA for English speech sounds only Linguistics 351, Phonetics and Phonology, learn the full IPA Make some noise The human vocal tract is capable of any number of sounds
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