Ch 12 Ecology - s(1).pdf

Ch 12 Ecology - s(1).pdf - Chapter 12 Ecology Ecology Level...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–12. Sign up to view the full content.

Chapter 12 Ecology
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Ecology: Level of Interaction Individual Individual organisms Population A group of interacting individuals of the same species living in a defined area Community Consists of two or more populations of different species living in the same area Ecosystem Consists of a community of living things interacting with the physical aspects of their environment Biosphere Consists of all the Earth’s ecosystems containing living species
Image of page 2
The biosphere includes biotic and abiotic factors The living organisms of an ecosystem constitute its biotic factors . The abiotic factors of an ecosystem are its nonliving components. Abiotic factors can have a profound effect on the life within an ecosystem.
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

What Limits Where A Species Lives? Limits to global distribution 1. Physical factors 2. Interactions with other species 3. Geographical barriers
Image of page 4
Interactions between species play important roles in communities Within a community , species interact with members as they compete for food, water, sunlight, or living space.
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

How Species Interact: Competition Interspecific competition Competing between species for the same limited resources Will affect one or the other’s survival or reproduction Competitive exclusion When one species excludes another species through competition Coexisting Two species can coexist if niches are NOT identical Often limits the population size in both interacting species
Image of page 6
How Species Interact: Predation Is usually beneficial for one species and harmful to the other Predators seek prey to survive Ants may eat plants to survive, but will ultimately injure the plant Lions hunt zebra to survive, but ultimately kill the zebra Coevolution of predator and prey The interactions of predator and prey lead to adaptations for better ways of catching prey and escaping predators
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Escaping Predation Camouflage organism blends into the environment Chemical warfare organism produces an undesirable substance to discourage prey Mimicry a species resembles another species for protection
Image of page 8
How Species Interact: Parasitism Parasites Obtain benefits at the expense of another organism Usually the parasite just saps the strength of the host rather than kill them
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

How Species Interact: Commensalism One species benefits, but the other is not harmed Birds that nest in trees Algae growing on a turtle’s shell
Image of page 10
How Species Interact: Mutualism Both species benefit from interaction Yucca moth and yucca plant The moth lays its eggs in
Image of page 11

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern