Chapter 12 Culture.docx - Chapter 12 Culture 1.culture...

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Chapter 12 Culture 1.culture, adolescence, and emerging adulthood the relevance of culture for the study of adolescence and emerging adulthood Culture- the behavior, patterns, beliefs and all other products of a particular group of people that are passed on from generation to generation If the study of adolescence and emerging adulthood is to be a relevant discipline in the twenty first century, increased attention will need to be focused on culture and ethnicity because there will be increased contact among people from varied culture and ethnic background For too long, the study of adolescence and emerging adulthood has been ethnocentric in the sense that the main participants in research studies have been middle socioeconomic status adolescents and emerging adults from the united states. o Ethnocentrism - a tendency to favor one’s own group over other groups Cross cultural comparisons Cross-cultural studies - studies that compare a culture with one or more other cultures. Such studies provide information about the degree to which development in adolescents and emerging adults is similar, or universal across cultures, or about the degree to which it is culture-specific Cross cultural comparisons reveal information such as variations in the time adolescents spend in different activities, in their level of achievement, and in their attitudes about sexuality. Individualistic cultures focus on the individuals-personal goals are more important than group goals, and values (feeling good, achievement, independence) are self-focused. Collectivism - emphasizes values that serve the group by subordinating personal goals to preserve group integrity Individualistic Collectivistic Focuses on individuals Focuses on groups Self is determined by personal traits independent of groups self is stable across context Self is defined by in group terms, self can change with context Private self is more important Public self is most important Personal achievement competition power is important Achievement is for the benefit of the in- group; cooperation is stressed Cognitive dissonance is frequent Cognitive dissonance is infrequent Emotions (such as anger) are self-focused Emotions (such as anger) are often relationship based People who are the most liked are self- assured People who are the most liked are modest self-effacing Values: pleasure, achievement, competition, freedom Values: security, obedience, in-group harmony, personalized relationships Many cause relationships
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