Ch 11 - Physiology - Movement and Nervous System - s.pdf

Ch 11 - Physiology - Movement and Nervous System - s.pdf -...

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Chapter 11 Skeletal System and Motion
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The Vertebrate Skeleton Skeleton of the body axis Axial skeleton Cranium and vertebral column Skeleton of the body branches Appendicular skeleton Pectoral and pelvic girdles Arm and leg bones
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The Skeleton: Bones Bones Bones come together to form joints Movement occurs at the joint Cartilage keeps the bones from rubbing together and provides a good shock absorber Ligaments connect bone to bone Tendons connect muscle to bone Many different processes provide attachment sites
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The human skelton: Articulation The versatility of the vertebrate skeleton comes in part from its movable joints Ligaments : Strong fibrous connective tissue hold bones of moveable joints together Ball-and-socket joints allow movement in all directions: e.g. where arms or legs connect to body Hinge joints permit movement in one plane: knee Pivot joints allow bones to rotate: also in elbow
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The human skeleton: Bones Bones are complex living organs Bones consist of several kinds of moist, living tissue Fibrous connective tissue covers the outer surface: Helps form new bone in the event of a fracture Cartilage cushions the joints: Protects the bones as they move against each other Bone cells live in a matrix of flexible collagen fibers embedded in hard calcium and phosphate: The collagen prevents the bones from becoming brittle, while the mineral matrix prevents compression
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The Skeleton: Bones Bone Remodeling Special cells in the bone matrix make bone and special cells reabsorb calcium and phosphorus from bone for use in the body Bone cell Bone matrix
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Skeletal system: What can go wrong? Forces that exceed a bone’ s ability to flex will result in a fracture , or broken bone. Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints. due to aging, immune system disorders, injury, or infection
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