Chapter 4.docx - Chapter 4 the self identity emotion and...

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Chapter 4: the self, identity, emotion, and personality 1. The self Self-understanding and understanding others self-understanding is the adolescent’s cognitive representation of the self, the substance and content of the adolescent’s self-conceptions. o For example: a 12-year-old boy understands that he is a student, a football player, a family member, and a video game lover An adolescent’s self-understanding is based on the various roles and membership categories that define who adolescents are. o It is not the whole of personal identity Self-understanding in adolescence: Dimensions of the adolescent’s self-understanding include o abstraction and idealism - Piaget’s theory of cognitive development when adolescents think in a more abstract and idealistic way. When asked to describe themselves, they are more likely than children to use abstract idealistic terms Example: 14-year-old “I am a human being. I am indecisive. I don’t know who I am” (abstract)- “I am naturally sensitive person who cares about people’s feelings. I think I’m pretty good-looking” (idealistic) o Differentiation - adolescents are more likely to note contextual or situational variations when describing themselves o contractions within the self- they begin to differentiate their concept of self into multiple roles in different relationship contexts, they sense potential contradictions between their differentiated selves. o real and ideal selves- their emerging ability to construct ideal selves can be perplexing to them. Although the capacity to recognize a discrepancy between the real and ideal selves represents a cognitive advance, the humanistic theories Carl Rogers argued that a strong discrepancy between real and ideal is a sign of maladjustment o true and false selves- possible self: what individuals might become, what they would like to become and what they are afraid of becoming adolescents are most likely to show their false selves with classmates and in romantic or dating situations, they are less likely to show their false selves with close friends. o social comparison- they compare themselves with others and to understand that others are making comparisons about them. An individual’s beliefs about how he or she is viewed by others are referred to as the looking glass self o self-consciousness- more likely to be self-conscious about and preoccupied with their self-understanding o the unconscious self- self-understanding involves greater recognition that the self includes unconscious as well as conscious components. The older they are the more likely they are to believe that certain aspects of their mental experience are beyond their awareness or control
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o not quite yet a coherent integrated self – because of the proliferation of selves and unrealistic self-portions during adolescence the task of integrating these varying self-conceptions become problematic.
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